Patients with certain diseases or predisposing conditions can benefit from a surveillance program: early diagnosis or screening. It consists of performing a fecal occult blood test and a colonoscopy to diagnose the tumor at an early or early stage in people who do not have any symptoms and have certain risk factors.
The diagnostic process begins with a proper interrogation, in which the doctor will collect information about personal and family medical history, and a complete physical examination of all systems. The information obtained in both processes will help direct the type of complementary examinations that must be performed to complete the diagnosis.
Today we have a wide range of diagnostic methods or complementary tests aimed at diagnosing cancer:
Analytical: the hemogram can show if there is anemia, this being an indirect sign of bleeding. The blood biochemistry can guide on the function of organs like the liver or the kidney.
Stool test: This is a test to detect blood in the stool, which may indicate the presence of polyps or cancer.
Tumor markers: Tumor markers are substances that can often be discovered in higher than normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. It is important to consider that tumor markers can be normal in a patient with cancer and that not all tumors can produce an elevation of markers.
Colonoscopy: colonoscopy is the introduction of a device that has a light at the end and that allows to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum and take a biopsy if the observed lesions are required. With this technique, polyps can also be resected if they are not very large.
Opaque enema: consists in the administration of a barium contrast for the year. This contrast shows the silhouette of color and straight. It can detect injuries of a certain size. If a complete colonoscopy has been performed, it is not necessary to perform an opaque enema.
Abdominal or abdominal-pelvic ultrasound: based on whole abdomen ultrasound price. It is useful to study the liver, to know if there is free fluid in the abdomen or to detect masses in the abdomen or pelvis.
Scanning (CT scan cost in Delhi NCR) of the thorax and abdomen: it provides information on local extension, if there are metastases in the liver, lung, etc.
Abdominal resonance: it is a technique different from CT, which is usually done when there are findings in the scanner that require complementary examinations. It is essential for the correct staging of rectal cancer.
Endoscopic ultrasound: it combines the endoscopic technique with an ultrasound transmitter and produces an image (ultrasound). It is very useful for the preoperative diagnosis of rectal cancer.
Positron emission tomography (PET CT scan): is a nuclear medicine test, which involves injecting a marked contrast with a radioactive substance and measuring the emission of particles called positrons giving a global view of the body and showing if there is disease.
Laparoscopy: is a technique that involves inserting an endoscope into the abdominal cavity, through holes that the surgeon makes in the abdominal wall. In rare cases this maneuver is reached for the sole purpose of establishing the diagnosis. It is usually used as a surgical technique to remove certain tumors in this area.