The diagnostic imaging tests that apply X - rays have been with nuclear medicine, the largest source of general population exposure to natural radiation in non- Western countries in recent decades. The introduction of new diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography (CT) has rapidly increased the number of doses of ionizing radiation received, with significant consequences not only for the individual patient but also for the total population. The burden of disease caused by excess radiation can be considered as a relevant public health problem that could be prevented.
Efforts have been made both from the FDA to reduce this exposure. Among them, they are:
- Promotion of the use of safe medical tests, through the establishment of requirements for companies that develop image tests
- Introduction in MRI Scan Centres in Noida of quality practices and accreditation systems, and recommendations for the establishment of reference doses for each type of test;
- Quantification of exposure of the general population to radiation derived from medical tests;
- Creation of a record of the history of the dose of radiation received from each patient, which could help in decision-making;
However, many of the strategies designed do not include the participation of the patient, when they should assume more responsibility in the decision to submit or not to an imaging test taking into account the potential risks as well as the benefits. If the objective is to establish useful recommendations aimed at reducing exposure to radiation, it is necessary to involve all the actors involved, not only the health professionals and companies that develop the technology, but also the patient who will undergo this test.
The inclusion of the patient in decision making is carried out through informed consent. However, its format and the procedure in which it is applied may have limitations in the implication of the patient's co-responsibility. It is essential to know how the population reacts to this radiological risk information, and on the other hand, to see the opinion of the doctor about the best way to inform the patient and what kind of information should be provided.
That is, knowing the attitudes of physicians and patients before the communication of risk/radiological benefit can be an essential factor for the incorporation of procedures in clinical practice that include co-responsibility doctor-patient and lead to the rational use of imaging tests.
Computed tomographies and magnetic resonances are available to physicians to be able to diagnose inappropriate way pathologies that affect the internal organs and tissues of their patients' bodies. The diagnosis of diseases is increasingly specialized and accurate in the world. Thanks to the technological advance in the medical field, achieved in the last decades, it is possible to evaluate in detail each organ and tissue of the body and, through specialized diagnostic images, and detect any anomaly that may occur in them.
The decision of which examination should be performed on each patient depends on various factors that are evaluated by both the attending CT scan centre and the radiologist. These specialists take into consideration, among other things, the type of tissue of the organs they want to analyze, the level of detail required, the characteristics and clinical history of the patient, their age and the general state of health.
Hence the importance of having, not only with high-quality equipment but with doctors highly specialized in radiology who can determine the needs of each patient and make the best possible use of the available machines. A good part of the success of the method of diagnostic images for the detection of diseases is in the interpretation by the experts of the results that the teams produce.