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Complete Blood Count Test During Pregnancy: Importance & Tests Results

or those who fear blood tests, you will have to be brave! Your pregnancy will be punctuated by blood tests that are intended to determine your immunity against certain diseases, your blood type and highlight any deficiencies.

The first blood test to confirm the pregnancy

The pregnancy test you just performed is positive!  Before you run to the doctor, take a blood test to confirm your pregnancy: more reliable than urine, it can be done even before the rule, from the second week after conception. It allows to measure the hormone secreted by the embryo after implantation in the uterus, β-HCG. For CBC ESR pregnancy in Delhi, you need to go to a medical analysis laboratory.

Blood tests to be done before conception

Since the late 1970s, the toxoplasmosis and rubella are subject to a mandatory screening program. At the time, they were even part of a prenuptial certificate at the time of marriage.

Since 2008, screening tests for these two diseases are prescribed during the first pregnancy consultation, or even just before conception. The idea is to achieve them even before being pregnant. The HIV test remains optional, as is the test for serum markers. One can go for Vitamin 25 oh cost in Delhi to get complete information about healthy delivery.

Blood tests of the 3rd month of pregnancy

During the 3rd month of pregnancy, during the prenatal consultation, your doctor will issue you a prescription to perform several other blood tests in the laboratory.

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP AND RH FACTOR

During these blood tests, the blood group and the Rhesus factor of the mother and, sometimes, of the father are sought. It is essential to know them in case of blood transfusion during childbirth.

It is also a question of anticipating the incompatibilities of Rhesus. If the mother is Rh negative and the father of Rh positive, the child may be Rh positive and therefore incompatible with his mother. The immune system of the latter will then consider the fetus as a foreign body and produce antibodies against it. This justifies monitoring the fetus to detect anemia caused by the mother's antibodies.

SEARCH FOR ANEMIA AND DEFICIENCIES

The blood test also includes the count of the blood cells. It helps prevent anemia in the mother who needs a diet that is richer in iron.

SCREENING FOR TRISOMY 21

The combined screening for trisomy 21 is also available. It must be performed between 11 weeks of amenorrhea and 13 weeks of amenorrhea+6 days.

This blood test (or assay of serum markers) helps to give an indication of the risk of trisomy 21. One must know about CBC with ESR cost in Delhi to get 360-degree health care of the mother and child.

Blood tests of the 5th month of pregnancy

The screening gestational diabetes himself is only offered to women at risk in the 5th month of pregnancy.

Blood tests of the 6th month of pregnancy

SEROLOGY OF HEPATITIS B

Finally, the serology of hepatitis B, performed in the sixth month of pregnancy.

It is mandatory at this stage of pregnancy, because if the mother is carrying the virus, she may transmit it at the time of delivery or during breastfeeding. In this case, the baby will have to have a treatment at birth which associates the traditional vaccination with the injection of specific anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulins.

SEARCH FOR ANEMIA AND DEFICIENCIES

During your follow-up visit for the 6th month, a blood test may be required to check for anemia (blood cell numbering). CBC Test Cost follow-up throughout the pregnancy makes it possible to anticipate the problems and to supervise mother and child for nine months to guarantee their good health.

Assessment of Liver Function

The term "liver function tests" is misleading as most of these tests detect inflammation or liver damage, they do not actually explore the metabolic or secretory functions of liver bile (Liver: Functions of the liver). Such inflammation or lesions may be present even before the liver functions are affected. Liver function tests are blood tests that are a non-invasive way to look for the presence of liver disease (e.g., hepatitis in a blood donation) and to measure the severity and progression of an illness of the liver and its response to treatment.

Laboratory analyses are generally effective for:

  • Detect inflammation, lesions or liver dysfunction
  • Assess the severity of a liver injury
  • Monitor the evolution of the liver disease and the response to a person's treatment

Specify the diagnosis

Hepatic tests are performed on blood samples and measure the levels of enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver. These substances include:

  • Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT)
  • Albumin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Alpha-fetoprotein
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Bilirubin
  • Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gamma-GT)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • 5'-nucleotidase

The level of some of these substances makes it possible to evaluate whether the liver performs its normal functions of protein production and bile secretion. The level of other substances can detect the presence and degree of inflammation of the liver. What is a normal value for many of these tests can be found in Blood tests? However, the values can sometimes be much higher than normal, usually because a person has another disease.

Why do a liver test?

The LFT test allows, on the one hand, research a possible abnormal liver function, on the other hand, to specify the nature of the anomaly highlighted to understand the origin of the attack better. Among different types of liver dysfunction, we distinguish different syndromes, the main ones of which are hepatic insufficiency (or hepatocellular insufficiency), cytolysis, cholestasis (with or without jaundice) and inflammation. Once the diagnosis is made, the repetition dosages can then monitor the evolution of the anomaly.

What are the examinations required for a liver assessment?

  • Liver function tests include the determination of several enzymes, relatively specific to the liver and manufactured (at least partially) by the liver: transaminase (SGPT or ALT and SGOT or AST) the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) the gamma-GlutamylTranspeptidase (gamma -GT) bilirubin
  • Other assays are less specific reflections of liver activity but are also markers of hepatic metabolism.
  • The determination of blood cholesterol (cholesterolemia): the liver essentially makes cholesterol. Its rate may be increased in case of cholestasis, decreased in the case of hepatocellular insufficiency.
  • The albumin dosage: it is a protein made by the liver. Its concentration in the blood is an indirect reflection (and not specific) of the good functioning of the liver. A decrease in its rate rather evokes a hepatocellular insufficiency.
  • Fibrinogen: it is a protein made by the liver. A decrease in the level of blood fibrinogen can be observed sometimes in case of hepatic insufficiency.
  • The electrophoresis of the proteins: it is a technique which makes it possible to observe a decrease or a relative or absolute increase of each class of proteins. In particular, it evaluates the proper functioning of the liver.
  • The prothrombin (PT) level: The prothrombin rate (or the prothrombin time) is a measure of the blood's coagulation rate. It indirectly helps to evaluate the state of the liver, since coagulation proteins are made in the liver. Prolongation of TP may indicate hepatocellular failure.
Frequently Asked Questions about Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound is an imaging study that uses ultrasound to evaluate the internal organs of the abdomen, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.

It can also evaluate vascular structures of the abdomen, as well as structures of the lymphatic system.

An ultrasound is used, which is used through a transducer the emission and reception of high-frequency sound waves. This transducer moves through the skin of the patient, and above the organ that interests to study, generating images of organs and structures within the abdomen. The same ultrasound through the transducer receives these waves and creates an image of the organ under study.

Each organ or tissue returns as a sound echo the waves that by its own structure generates given the density of the tissue to which it is formed, for example, the waves that emit bone, fluids or adipose tissue will be different.

How is an abdominal ultrasound done?

It is an ultrasound done lying down, and a transparent water-based conductive gel is applied to the skin on the abdomen that serves as a means for the transmission of ultrasound.

The doctor may need to change the position while performing the study, to examine different areas of the abdomen; you may also be asked to hold your breath for short periods during the study.

This ultrasound can be requested to investigate the cause of abdominal pain, kidney infections, diagnose tumors or ascites, and evaluate the presence of lithiasis in the gallbladder or kidney, among other possible causes for the study.

What is the preparation for an abdominal ultrasound?

The person is required to fast for at least 8 hours, to facilitate the observation of all the organs to be evaluated.

Does abdominal ultrasound generate any discomfort?

It is a study done by Ultrasound Labs that generates little or no discomfort. The conductive gel can feel a bit cold and damp. It is a rapid study in general and that the patient tolerates very well.

How long is an abdominal ultrasound?

Approximately an abdominal ultrasound study lasts about 30 minutes.

Are there risks to perform the abdominal ultrasound study?

There are no risks to perform it, since it is not exposed to ionizing radiation and neither is it an invasive study.

In an abdominal ultrasound, Doppler can also be used to increase the evaluation of the organs under study, through the study of its vascularization. In the course of Doppler, you can hear sounds similar to the pulse of an artery.

After the study, the patient can resume their activities in a normal and daily manner.

One of the benefits is low whole abdomen ultrasound price, its availability, and it does not use ionizing radiation.

An image is generated in real time, being a tool that eventually serves as a guide for minimally invasive procedures such as aspiration biopsies, and fine needle aspirations for drainage of liquids in the abdomen.

It has limitations for the study of hollow organs, that is, the intestine and the stomach mainly, since the air or gas contained in these organs reflects the ultrasound beam and prevents the formation of a clear image of the organ.

Diagnosing the Health Issues in Your Child

How can parents prevent and treat these conditions to give their children a healthy and happy adult life?

Congenital heart diseases are problems in the structure and functioning of the heart due to the abnormal development of the heart before birth. It is the most common congenital anomaly, and its presentation and treatment will depend on the type of malformation that is since there are several types.

The majority of congenital heart diseases are presented as an isolated defect without association with other diseases. They can also be part of various genetic and chromosomal syndromes, such as Down syndrome. And although congenital heart disease is present at birth, it may not be visible immediately or cause problems for years.

Although for most congenital disabilities a known cause cannot be identified, it is known that the consumption of alcohol and some chemical substances during pregnancy, and certain infections such as rubella, can contribute to its development. It is also important to control the level of blood sugar especially in pregnant women with diabetes and perform periodic ultrasounds to detect any problems.

Early prevention, the key

The first preventive measure is fetal cardiac ultrasound when the child is still in the uterus. However, the condition can be detected only years later, when the child is in early childhood, so periodic checks are essential. Besides, there are two other forms of diagnosis: puncture and nuchal translucency. Any of these types of studies must be done after week 20.

With early detection and adequate treatment, the child can be provided with quality and normal life expectancy, something that for years was unthinkable due to the lack of information and technology.

In general terms, the treatments will depend on the type of heart disease that is suffered. The milder ones disappear alone over the years, other more serious require medication and in the most complex one or several surgical procedures will be required.

Diagnostic tests

If the results of level 1 ultrasound are abnormal, doctors usually use diagnostic tests to determine if the baby has congenital disabilities or other possible problems. These tests are also offered to women with high-risk pregnancies, such as women aged 35 or older, women who have had their previous pregnancy affected by birth defects, women with chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, lupus, diabetes or epilepsy, and women who use certain medications.

High-resolution ultrasound

The ultrasound creates images of the baby. This ultrasound, also called second-level ultrasound, is used to look more closely at possible birth defects or other problems that have been indicated in the results of previous screening tests. It is usually done between weeks 18 and 22 of pregnancy.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

In the chorionic villus test (CVS), the doctors of Ultrasound Clinic removes a small sample of the placental tissue, called chorionic villus, to analyze and determine if the baby has chromosomal or genetic alterations. In general, CVS is offered to women who have received an abnormal result on a first-trimester screening test or who may be at higher risk. This test is done between weeks 10 and 12 of pregnancy, before amniocentesis.

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is an examination in which the doctor removes a small amount of amniotic fluid from the area surrounding the baby. The fluid is tested to understand the baby's protein levels, which can indicate certain birth defects. Amniotic fluid cells can be analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and genetic problems, such as cystic fibrosis.

Computed Tomography for Dental Implantation

Installing an implant requires thorough preparation. The operation is preceded by the collection and analysis of data on the state of health of the patient, the anatomical features of his oral cavity. The doctor assesses the results of the best CT scan in Delhi, a detailed image of the bones and soft tissues of the maxillofacial region obtained by computed tomography. Based on complex data, it is possible to make a prediction of implant implantation.

The method of computed tomography of the jaw is actively used in implantology. It is necessary if the panoramic picture does not give a complete picture of the features of the bones and tissues that the implantologist will deal with. The X-ray emitter rotates along the path of the helix; it can scan bone tissue, temporomandibular joint, dental roots - depending on the nature of the doctor's prescription.

A cone beam Tomograph creates a digital model of the patient’s maxillary system in 3-D format. Thus, the features of the teeth, the thickness, density and structure of the jaw bone tissue, the position of the maxillary sinuses are determined with precision. The specialist models the implantable implant calculates its inclination and the position of the jaw. The whole procedure of integrating the artificial root depends on the quality of the examination.

Also, with the help of CT, the state of filling materials in the teeth, roots, dentin, pulp, and nerve tissue is assessed. During the examination, it is possible to identify the formations at an early stage and begin their treatment.

Key advantages of using CT scanner in dentistry:

A copy of the picture is saved to external media or printed. The patient will also be able to see how his teeth will look after correcting the problem.

The method of 3D tomography is used in medical dentistry. Using a snapshot, the specialist determines the treatment method and the Osseo integration scheme. A special program allows you to test the result of implantation and eliminate complications.

How is CT performed?

A computer and a scanning device are integral parts of a dental 3D tomography. The scanner is provided with X-rays. There are two types of equipment:

The scanner is in the shape of a cylinder, in which the patient lies.

A special unit for dental offices. It has a rotating part and support for the patient's head.

Both types of scanners at CT scan Centersare programmed to take up to six images per second. All data is transferred to the computer for processing. Special software reproduces on the screen a model of the scanned area. The 3D image consists of several layers. Pictures are displayed on the monitor screen. The specialist analyzes the three layers of the scanned area: frontal, diametrical, vertical.

For security reasons and to obtain a high-quality snapshot, the client needs to perform a number of actions:

  • Get rid of metal objects (remove earrings, chains, etc., jewelry);
  • Wear a radiation protective apron;
  • Sit down or lie down, fixing the head on the support;
  • Do not move while scanning the jaw, forming a 3D image.
  • If there is a need to introduce a contrast agent, the patient should not eat and drink 4 hours before the session.

PET-Scan (Tomography), What is it?

The PET-Scan, whose name comes from the English "positron emission tomography," is a nuclear medicine exam often called PET or positron emission tomography. Like scintigraphy, it consists of analyzing the functioning of an organ or a structure of the body using a contrast product injected into the patient. The radiotracer reacts in a certain way by meeting the organs and in the presence of an anomaly.

Images of these reactions are captured by a machine and reproduced on a computer screen. The three-dimensional reconstruction makes it possible to visualize the zones of high concentration of the tracer (zones in red). The doctor can identify an abnormality or pathology. The main advantage of PET-Scan is that it allows obtaining 3D cuts, which is not the case of scintigraphy. This technique is particularly useful in oncology for detecting or monitoring a tumor.

Why prescribe a tomography?

PET CT scan is mainly prescribed:

  • In oncology to detect metastases, to know the effectiveness of treatment put in place or to confirm a tumor recurrence when a blood test revealed an increase in tumor markers.
  • In cardiology to study the functioning of the myocardium (for example after a heart attack) or coronary arteries
  • In neurology to confirm the presence of brain damage and degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease.

There are several tracers. The choice of doctor depends on the pathology sought or the type of tumor.

How does a PET scan work?

In total, the PET scan takes about two hours. Intravenous injection of the radioactive substance is the first step. The patient remains to lie down, usually one hour. This is the time normally required for the contrast material to enter the body and reach the organs to be examined. The patient, still lying on his back, is then placed for about twenty minutes in a machine equipped with a ring-shaped opening. That's when PET images are made. The results cannot be communicated immediately after the examination because the study of the images takes a certain time.

According to the results of the PET CT examination is determined:

  • The presence and nature of tumor lesions, recurrence of the disease or metastasis of cancer at an early stage;
  • The presence of vascular disorders, post-traumatic changes, foci of epilepsy and Parkinsonism in the brain, as well as causes of dementia;
  • The viability of the myocardium (heart muscle) in ischemic heart disease, congenital heart defects.

What are the risks of PET CT scan?

PET-Scan is a reliable test that has no adverse effect on health. Some mild allergic reactions are sometimes observed at the injection site. It can be achieved during pregnancy. As a precaution, breastfeeding should be stopped for the next 12 hours if the tracer used is 18F-fluorinated fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG).

Is PET-Scan painful?

No, PET-Scan is an entirely painless test except for the bite that can cause temporary itching. Positron emission tomography is the most informative methods used in the diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors, as well as other problems, accompanied by a violation of biochemical processes in various organs and tissues. Today, most cancer centers use a more informative version of the study of PET CT.

Recommendations Before Doing a 4D or 5D Ultrasound

Are you going to get a 4D or 5D ultrasound and you do not know how to prepare yourself to be perfect? In that case, take note of the recommendations we give you in this post!

Avoid giving you moisturizer 48/72 hours before your ultrasound 4D or 5D

We know that during pregnancy the use of this product in your tummy is essential to take care of the skin. However, you should know that body creams have a fatty film that produces interference in the ultrasound. This influences the quality of the image, making it difficult to visualize your baby. Therefore, this is one of our main recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound.

Try to drink 2 liters of water every day- 3 or 4 days before

Drink plenty of water the days before your 4d ultrasound test will help make the amniotic fluid clearer. Thanks to this, the ultrasound will provide sharper images.

Bring some sweet or exciting drink on the day of the session

Sometimes babies are on their backs or asleep. In order to get them to move and see their faces better, one of our recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound is to take an ounce of chocolate or coffee, as long as the professional advises.

Take 1.5 liters on the day of your 4D or 5D ultrasound and avoid urinating 15 minutes before

In the same way that it is essential to consume fluids before performing a 4D or 5D ultrasound, it is the same day of the session. Also, it would be preferable if your bladder was half full. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid going to the bathroom at least 15 minutes before the 4D or 5D ultrasound. In this way, you are favoring the visualization of the baby.

Wear comfortable clothes and relax

On the day of your 4D or 5D ultrasound, choose items of clothing that you feel comfortable with during the session. A pair of pants that you can undo and a wide blouse with your tummy to the air would be two great options. Remember that the duration of your 4D or 5D ultrasound will be approximately 30 minutes. Therefore, from Forty Weeks we advise you to relax and enjoy this unique experience!

The importance of knowing when to have a 4D or 5D ultrasound

Finally, one of the best recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound is that you choose when to perform it. The week of pregnancy in which you decide to enjoy this experience will be crucial to get the best viewing of your baby. We remind you that as the pregnancy progresses, your baby is located in the pelvic area, which can hinder the visibility of some parts of your body.

Follow our recommendations and enjoy this day

From Forty Weeks we want you to feel comfortable and be able to see your baby as clearly as possible, so it is essential that you follow these recommendations before your 4d ultrasound test. In case it is not possible to see it, do not worry. Our professionals will teach you different exercises to facilitate the movement of the baby, or we will repeat the session without additional cost. Are you ready to live an extraordinary experience?

PET, A Test Increasingly Requested in Oncology But Limited by Its High Price

If you have been treated for cancer, it is normal that you want to do everything possible to ensure that you do not return. But you may not need the tests, and your risks may be greater than the benefits. Below is the reason:

In general, PET-CT scans do not help people who have completed cancer treatments and have no symptoms.

For most cancers, these tests do not help you live longer or have a better quality of life. If you have the tomographies done without a good reason, they can produce anxiety, wrong diagnoses, false alarms, unnecessary procedures, and more costs.

Often, there are better ways to monitor your condition:

  • It is alert to symptoms that could mean that cancer has returned.
  • Get regular exams that include a medical history and a medical exam.
  • For some cancers, there are simple tests you should do, such as mammograms for women who have been treated for breast cancer.
  • Ask your doctor what proof, if any, is appropriate for your situation.

PET and PET-CT scans have risks.

Performing whole body PET scans Delhi can contribute to stress as a cancer survivor. Often, these tests detect medical problems that are not serious. This could cause more tests and procedures, including follow-up scans, and even biopsies and surgery.

In addition, PET scans, and especially PET-CT scans expose you to high levels of radiation. The effects of radiation accumulate throughout your life. This can increase your risk of cancer. They should not do multiple CT scans unless there is medical evidence that shows they would help you. Ask your consulted doctor if it is a good idea to have multiple CT scans.

So, when is a good idea to have a PET scan after treatment?

A PET scan or PET-CT scan may be helpful if your doctor suspects that your cancer has returned, based on your symptoms, a medical exam or other tests. A CT scan may also be suggested if you were given treatment for advanced cancer, and your doctor needs to find out if your most recent treatment was effective.

Positron emission tomography (known as PET, according to the acronym in English) is the newest of these non-invasive diagnostic techniques introduced within the field of nuclear medicine. PET brings together the most advanced physics, electronics, and computer engineering, disciplines on which it has depended for its development and implementation in clinical practice. But its use is being held back by the high price of the test.

The latest generation scanners of PET CT scan are not claustrophobic for the patient and allow obtaining high-quality full body images in a reasonable time of 30 to 60 minutes. The PET obtains images of the whole organism thanks to the action of diverse molecules marked with isotopes (radioactive drugs) emitting positrons (subatomic particles), which have been previously injected to the patient by the intravenous route.

When Do I Need to Undergo a LFT ?

Liver testing for diseases is also carried out during pregnancy (ideally at the planning stage), before surgery and a course of treatment involving the administration of potent drugs.

When can an LFT test be required? It is recommended to regularly examine the most important organs and systems of the body for prophylactic purposes. But there are a number of symptoms that signal that verification is required as quickly as possible. Thus, the liver should be examined immediately if you notice the following signs of organ dysfunction:

Discomfort in the lower pair of ribs on the right is one of the first manifestations of liver problems. Barely noticeable nagging pains, tingling may accompany unusual sensations and a feeling of constriction or overcrowding in the area of the liver. Usually, they make themselves felt when laughing, talking loudly or shouting, sneezing, sharp sideways, lifting weights, as well as after eating fatty, smoked, fried or spicy foods. At first, a new feeling may not cause pain or tangible discomfort- in this case; they also say: “I found out where the liver is.” This is a reason to be wary, because even mild symptoms may indicate the initial stage of the serious hepatic disease.

The liver is enlarged. The change in the dimensions of the main gland is accurately recorded by ultrasound, but you can notice the changes yourself. This will indicate a bulging belly without an increase in overall fullness and with virtually no weight gain. The especially noticeable symptom in people with thin physique.

Unpleasant taste in the mouth. Patients with chronic liver problems have a constant dry mouth and bitterness on the tongue, sometimes with a characteristic flavor that is defined as “copper.” At the same time, an astringent feeling is noted in the mouth; taste sensations are reduced. Habitual food can cause rejection, even nausea and the urge to vomit.

Weight loss on the background of the asthenic syndrome. This symptom is largely a consequence of the previous one. Food rejection, loss of taste, nausea lead to a decrease in diet, which leads to weight loss. At the same time, the patient complains of unreasonable irritability, as well as weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, because the body's energy requirements are not met, and the toxic effects of impaired nitrogenous (protein) metabolism greatly increase- with an increased concentration of ammonia in the blood, secondary (hepatic) hyperammonemia occurs.

Jaundice is a common complex of symptoms, which is expressed in the yellowness of the skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes, as well as in dark urine, itching, and peeling of the skin, in chills, bone, and joint pain, and is caused by problems with the liver.

What does a liver function test reveal?

  • The fact of the disease, its degree, the level of liver failure;
  • The presence and degree of histological (cellular) changes in the structure of the liver tissue, such as fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Diagnosis of specific liver diseases - viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty hepatosis.

Low Dose Thoracic CT Scan

Thoracic Pathologies and Radiation Problems

The scanner is the reference diagnostic tool for thoracic pathology. Unlike a standard X-ray, sectional images help to avoid the appearance of shadows. Thanks to the air in the lungs and the contrast media, the resolution is ideal for lung parenchyma examination. In addition, the thoracic scanner has a very high spatial resolution, exceeding the performance of the MRI as part of a health check.

Fast and easy to perform (4 to 5 seconds), CT scan significantly reduces movement artifacts. In addition, the various filters, the software and the 3D reconstructions make it possible to improve the interpretation of the images obtained. Unfortunately, the CT scan shows a very high level of radiation. The low dose chest scanner has been developed to work around this problem.

MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF THE TECHNIQUE

With the low-dose chest CT scan, the primary goal is to obtain usable images with a radiation level equivalent to that of a standard X-ray. The dose is then adjusted according to the age and body size of the subject. The examination thus displays a radiation rate in the order of 1/10th to 1/20th of the 25th percentile of the reference level. Set by the ASCN (Nuclear Safety Authority), this value corresponds to the average dose used in hospitals.

At its lowest level, the low-dose chest CT scan by the best CT scan Centre in Delhi provides satisfactory images for nodule observation or monitoring of problems such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pneumonia, etc. With a slightly increased dose, it can serve as a first-line examination for the management of certain diseases. The examination has been particularly successful in the early diagnosis of bronchial cancer in the context of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST).

The lung scan may be useful for detecting blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), but it has largely been replaced by CT angiography in the diagnosis of this condition. Pulmonary scintigraphy can also be used as a preoperative assessment in people with lung cancer. Pulmonary scintigraphy uses small amounts of a half-life radioactive substance to measure air and blood flow throughout the lungs. In general, the exam is done in two stages.

In the first step (pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy), a radioactive substance is injected into a vein, and the scanner produces an image of the diffusion of this product into the pulmonary bloodstream. If perfusion scintigraphy reveals abnormalities, it is necessary to proceed to a second step (pulmonary ventilation scintigraphy).

INDICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES

The low-dose chest CT scan is particularly interesting because of the quality of the images obtained, its speed and the significant reduction of radiation risks. The technique is mainly used for the early detection of bronchial cancer in a population at risk and the follow-up of various thoracic disorders. Thus, doctors can quickly adjust the treatment of patients, case by case. However, computed tomography poses a significant problem because of CT scan price in Delhi.

Currently, low dose CT screening for lung cancer is four times more expensive than for breast cancer and ten times more expensive than for colon cancer. As a result, it is currently inconceivable to use it for repeated checks. The latter can indeed take several years and generate excessive expenditure for patients and care organizations.

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