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Alzheimer's Disease: Ultrasound To The Rescue Of The Brain

There are about 50 million people worldwide who suffer from Alzheimer's disease. This number, which will increase even more with the increase in the elderly population, has made Alzheimer's disease one of the biggest health problems of our time. There is no definitive cure for the disease currently known. With the drugs we have, we can only slow the course of the disease.

rescue-of-the-brain

Alzheimer's disease results from a slow degeneration of neurons, starting in the hippocampus (a brain structure essential for memory) and then spreading to the rest of the brain. It is characterized by recent memory disorders, executive functions, and orientation in time and space. The patient gradually loses his cognitive faculties and his autonomy.

It is characterized by neurological degeneration which affects cognitive capacities, including memory. If drugs can slow this process down, the disease is still incurable.

But research continues to open up avenues. The ultrasound technique already being tested for brain tumors could also help Alzheimer's patients. Since the brain is a very "tight" organ, chemotherapy has great difficulty in penetrating it, but ultrasound has the property of making it more permeable and of facilitating the access of the chemo to the tumor. Patients are currently in clinical trials, and the method is so promising that it will soon also be tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

What if we could treat Alzheimer's disease or brain tumors more effectively?

The blood-brain barrier is a kind of physiological shield all around the brain. Its mission is to prevent possible toxins from entering it. A protective barrier which also complicates the treatment of neurological diseases since therapeutic fluids, drugs cannot or very little cross it.

Alzheimer's disease, sometimes considered the disease of the century, could be cured thanks to an extraordinarily promising new technique using ultrasound to remove aggregates of toxic proteins suspected of causing this famous disease as well as dementia. A treatment that has proven itself in animal tests.

The ultrasound test technique is exceptional in that it opens this shield and therefore makes the barrier permeable. We now know that this makes it possible to better distribute chemotherapy in the brain. Originally, a discovery that creates real hope in the treatment of previously incurable brain tumors. Treatment can be greatly improved, thanks to the opening of the blood-brain barrier.

Experts have developed an ultrasound system that opens these previously waterproof vessels and make chemotherapy easier to penetrate. The molecule directly reaches its goal and it heals better.

It would be a healthy way, without medication and without any harm to the sick, to heal. Initially, the research aimed to find a way to use ultrasound to temporarily open the blood-brain barrier to help dementia-fighting antibodies better reach their target in the brain.

Ultrasound waves oscillate rapidly, activating microglial cells, destroying amyloid plaques that destroy neuron synapses in these cells. This approach activates the memory-repairing mechanism by temporarily opening the blood-brain barrier, clearing toxic protein clumps.

Since these initial observations, the team has decided to work to refine its technique. They have successfully proven that the treatment removes toxic proteins and safely restores memory. Experts suggests that if you are going to have an ultrasound, it is better to know ultrasound price in Delhi first.

Ultrasound Of The Heart: Possibilities Of The Method, Features Of The Conduct And Cost Of Diagnosis

Despite the fact that the heart is one of the most studied organs of the human body, and Indian cardiologists are one of the best in the world, in our country, unfortunately, about 1.2 million people die from cardiovascular diseases annually. And one of the main reasons for the high mortality rates, along with the wrong lifestyle, is that Russians are extremely dismissive of the early diagnosis of heart disease.

ultrasound-of-the-heart

No cardiologist can provide qualified assistance to his patient if the diagnosis is too late or inaccurate. In this article, we will talk about ultrasound of the heart, or EchoCG, a study that is among the first among the hardware methods for diagnosing the heart muscle and can detect diseases in the early stages.

Transthoracic echocardiography (EchoCG) is an ultrasound examination of the heart that is highly informative and does not cause patient discomfort. In this examination, the sensor of the device is pressed against the chest - hence the name of the procedure. At the same time, electrodes are fixed on the patient's body, with the help of which an ECG is recorded. Observing the state of the heart and having the results of an ECG, the doctor receives a comprehensive picture of the patient’s heart condition. You should also know the ultrasound test cost in Noida.

At 3hcare, transthoracic echocardiography is performed using the most modern devices. You can get both 2D and 3D images on them, measure blood flow velocity, and thus the examination becomes even more detailed. All this significantly improves the quality of diagnosis and treatment of our patients.

THE PROCEDURE FOR TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

During the examination, the patient lies on his back or on his left side (this position may be preferable for the doctor). In addition to ultrasound, the patient's ECG is simultaneously recorded. If the patient suffers from pulmonary emphysema, obesity, if he has a chest injury, the examination may be difficult and will require more time. However, usually, the doctor manages to find such a position of the sensor, in which he can get an informative picture.

Depending on the indications and condition of the patient, the doctor may use different modes of the sensor, conducting a more or less detailed study. In each case, this is decided individually.

Using ultrasound, you can see the heart in different projections, measure the thickness of the walls, see the position of the heart valves, the volume of the chambers of the heart. During the examination, the doctor receives a general picture of the patient’s condition and can, according to its results, conduct an additional examination. In particular, often patients are referred for transesophageal echocardiography, during which the probe is inserted into the esophagus.

INDICATIONS FOR TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

Transthoracic echocardiography is a general examination that is performed to assess the condition of the heart. The main indications for his appointment are:

  • Heartache
  • Heart murmur
  • Rhythm disturbances
  • Signs of heart failure (e.g., swelling of the legs)
  • Fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, etc.

This examination has no contraindications, however, patients suffering from tachycardia or hypertension should warn the doctor about the diagnosis so that he correctly deciphers the results of echocardiography.

The examination takes approximately 30 minutes. Its results are written to disk or flash media and transferred to the patient. It is suggested to know the ultrasound test price in Noida before having one.

Decoding Of The Second Screening Of Ultrasound

In the second trimester, a pregnant woman is assigned a repeated screening, confirming or refuting the data obtained in the first comprehensive study. This period is most suitable for the diagnosis of hormonal levels of the fetus. The data obtained make it possible to assess its development.

If the expectant mother has to wait for a consultation of the attending physician for several days, she will certainly be interested in whether the results of the perinatal screening are normal in advance. It should be remembered that the doctor always judges the pathology only by the totality of the indicators of fetometry, and almost never takes anyone value into account.

Each child is individual even before birth. And if the future mother has really serious reasons for concern, then the ultrasound clinic will inform her about this immediately. Nevertheless, we will talk about the main indicators of the second screening and their normal values.

Body length and fetal weight

At the beginning of the second trimester, the embryo is growing very actively, and it is difficult to judge the standards. On average, the length of the fetus grows from 10 to 16 cm between the sixteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy. It is important to consider not an absolute indicator in centimeters, but an increase in growth by weeks. If the specialist is alert, the pregnant woman will be offered a second study after a week or two.

The fetal weight by ultrasound can only be determined using special formulas so that this value can be very inaccurate depending on the device, the doctor, and the posture of the baby in the womb. Weighing about 300 grams by the 20th week, all the organs of the baby are fully formed, and from 22 weeks or about 450 grams, a prematurely born baby can survive. It seems unbelievable!

The circumference of the abdomen and head

As well as the growth of the child, these important values ​​vary over a wide range and must strictly correspond to the gestational age. There are frequent cases when the “developmental delay” in practice turned out to be an incorrectly diagnosed gestational age. However, the widespread introduction of ultrasound diagnostics in the early stages has reduced the number of such errors.

Biparietal (BPR) and Frontooccipital Foetal head size

It is not surprising that the level 2 ultrasound of pathologies during pregnancy is based on head measurements in 3 projections. It is unlikely that at least one human organ is comparable in complexity and importance to the brain. Deviations from reference values ​​may indicate the formation of severe fetal malformations, such as anencephaly or dropsy of the brain. But as a rule, such diseases are judged by several repeated ultrasounds.

Bone length: lower leg, femur, humerus, and forearm

Some deviation from the norms indicated in the table for the weeks of pregnancy is permissible and can be determined by individual characteristics. The doctor will be warned by a sharp shortening of the entire limb or a different length of arms or legs in one child.

Major Liver Disease During Ultrasound

Steatosis of the liver (different names may be: fatty hepatosis, fatty infiltration, fatty liver), which occurs on liver ultrasound, is an etiologically and pathogenetically heterogeneous syndrome, which is characterized by a prolonged and significant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. The main factor of steatosis is alcohol abuse, diabetes, obesity, unbalanced nutrition (protein deficiency), chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by impaired absorption (enteritis, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, etc.), chronic debilitating diseases (cancer, anemia, cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency, etc.), toxic (hepatotropic, medicinal) and bacterial factors.

Ultrasound test with a diffuse form of fatty hepatosis, as a rule, reveals an increase in the size of the liver, an unclear contour. The edges of the liver are rounded. Characteristic features include increased echogenicity of the parenchyma. Its structure is in most cases homogeneous, however, sometimes on the background of hyperechoic tissue, it is possible to detect areas of reduced reflection with uneven, fuzzy contours that do not deform the vascular pattern.

These are areas of unchanged parenchyma, which, as a rule, are detected in the portal fissure of the liver, in the projection of I, IV, V segments. The sound conduction of the liver is often reduced; the vascular pattern is depleted. In addition to diffuse, ultrasound of the liver also produces local and focal forms, when fatty infiltration extends only to limited segments and sectors of the liver, and sometimes manifests itself in the form of individual small zones, resembling focal education.

Ultrasound picture of fatty hepatosis does not always allow to clearly differentiate it from other diffuse organ lesions (chronic hepatitis, the initial stage of cirrhosis). Crucial importance in the diagnosis of steatosis and its delimitation from chronic hepatitis belongs to the puncture biopsy of the liver.

How does hepatitis show on ultrasound?

Acute hepatitis is an acute degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver. Hepatitis can be alcoholic or viral etiology, develop as a result of exposure to toxic or metabolic factors. The main ultrasound sign of this disease is hepatomegaly. In a significant number of observations, moreover, an increase in the size of the spleen is found. The contour of the liver usually remains clear and smooth.

Edges can be both sharp and rounded. In the severe course, accompanied by the presence of foci of necrosis, the parenchyma has a heterogeneous structure due to the appearance of multiple areas of reduced echogenicity alternating with fragments of unchanged parenchyma. With significant swelling of the liver tissue, its echogenicity is reduced to a greater extent.

Organ conduction is often increased; as a result, the vascular pattern becomes clearer, and the walls of the portal vein more contrasting. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes in the area of the hepatoduodenal ligament may be of some help in making a diagnosis.

As a rule, on ultrasound in chronic hepatitis, an increase in the size of the liver due to the right and left lobes is observed, a rounding of the edges and an increase in the angles formed by them can be observed. The contour of the liver often remains clear and smooth. The structure of the parenchyma is usually diffusely heterogeneous, the echo is increased, and the sound conductivity is reduced in most cases. There is also a progressive impoverishment of the vascular pattern. In chronic hepatitis, diffuse liver damage was found only in 2/3 cases, which, according to the ultrasound labs, is due to the absence in most cases of fairly pronounced fibrosis and/or steatosis.

How Thyroid Can Get Inspected?

Especially if you are a woman or if there are already similar cases in your family, you should monitor your thyroid, a gland that produces fundamental hormones for many of your body's activities.

The thyroid is a small endocrine gland shaped like a butterfly. It is located more or less at the base of your neck and produces several hormones that the body uses to perform some fundamental tasks, such as metabolism control, bone and muscle development, and brain functioning. For this reason, it is very important to keep it monitored. These are absolutely non-invasive procedures like a normal medical examination or the classic blood test.

The thyroid tests is above all, a simple physical examination and a blood test to assess whether the amount of hormones produced by this gland is regular or not. In case you suspect a more serious ongoing problem, your doctor, or a specialist, will prescribe you more detailed tests like a scan or even an ultrasound.

Medical examination and thyroid palpation

The first exam consists of a simple medical examination. Your GP, once you tell him the symptoms that made you worry, will look carefully at the area of your neck, at the level of the thyroid, in search of possible asymmetries, anomalies or swellings visible even with the naked eye. Then he will proceed to the palpation of the area from different positions, positioning himself both in front of and behind you, and will ensure that he is not suspiciously enlarged. If you notice any alteration, you will proceed with other, more detailed investigations.

Blood tests

In a blood test, the number of thyroid hormones present in the blood will be quantified. If it turns out to be too low, you may suffer from hypothyroidism; if the concentration is excessive, the problem could be hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid ultrasound

This is a normal ultrasound, with which, thanks to an ultrasound probe that scans the affected area, it is possible to identify the presence of various abnormalities in the form and constitution of the thyroid. First of all, the ultrasound test detects the enlargement and a possible goiter, but also the presence of nodules or a tumor mass.

Thyroid autoantibody test

Again, it is a simple blood test, but this time it serves to evaluate another datum: the presence or absence of thyroid autoantibodies. They are cells that defend your body, but, and they only attack this gland. As a result, they can cause malfunctions, but also inflammations such as thyroiditis.

Thyroid scintigraphy

If previous tests suggest a tumor, nodule formation or Basedow-Graves bite, your doctor or specialist could prescribe a thyroid scan. A decidedly more invasive procedure than the previous ones, which involves the injection of a radiopharmaceutical and screening through a device called gamma-camera.

Thyroid biopsy

Through a special needle, a microframmento of your thyroid is taken to be analyzed in the laboratory. If there is a suspicion that you have a tumor, this is the most reliable tool for verifying whether the formation is benign or not.

Risk preeclampsia? Doppler ultrasound makes sense

Preventative appointments during pregnancy should provide the best possible control of your health and the healthy development of your unborn child. Science strives for the continuous development of medical procedures. A recognized examination method is ultrasound.

Now the researchers have succeeded in using Doppler ultrasound to detect a known risk factor for preterm birth. To get complete health care services, one must know doppler ultrasound cost.

One of the most common causes of prematurity_ Preeclampsia

In some women, an immune reaction already develops in early pregnancy, which leads to malformation of the blood vessels in the placenta. The circulation of the nutcake is thereby disturbed - via messenger substances; this is reported back to the cardiovascular system. To provide the unborn child with enough blood, the body responds by increasing blood pressure.

This disease is called preeclampsia. Symptoms include:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • blurred vision

Preeclampsia can become very dangerous during pregnancy. It gets too little blood to the child; it creates a life-threatening situation. The only countermeasure of the pregnant woman's body is a further increase in blood pressure. As soon as the mother's body can no longer supply enough blood to the baby, the contractions are prematurely initiated. Either it comes to premature birth, or the blood pressure is increased again so that the pregnant woman herself is in mortal danger. One must get an idea about ultrasound test cost in Noida to prevent the chances of premature preeclampsia. In case of risk factors Doppler ultrasound examination is advisable.

Although the causes are not yet clearly understood, factors are identified that indicate a possible development of preeclampsia. These are:

- Age (older than 35 years or younger than 18 years)

- Overweight (BMI > 30)

- Chronic diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, coagulation disorders)

- Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy or in the family

- multiple pregnancies

So far, the diagnostic options for preeclampsia were not mature, so that it was often found only when symptoms occurred. This has usually made medical treatment difficult - not infrequently had the pregnancy (prematurely) by an (emergency) childbirth be terminated. Thus, preeclampsia is the cause of up to 50 percent of premature births.

Meanwhile, a diagnosis through Doppler ultrasound is already possible in the 11th to 13th week of pregnancy. With this method, the speed of the flowing blood is measured. It is checked whether the circulation of the placenta is disturbed. One should also go for abdominal ultrasound cost in Delhi to get an idea about the risk factors of fetus development.

To counteract a worsening of blood coagulation in the mother cake, early intake of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is necessary. Thus, the aggravation of preeclampsia can be prevented. However, one should remember that the dose of the drug must begin before the 16th week. Otherwise, it will be ineffective. Early onset of drug treatment improves the child's blood supply and can significantly prolong pregnancy in many cases.

Hope! It helped you.

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