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Diagnostic Imaging Of The Chest

Imaging includes X-ray, MRI, scintigraphy and ultrasound examinations.

There are no absolute contraindications for carrying out diagnostic procedures for non-invasive images except for MRI. The presence of metal objects inside the patient's eyes or brain precludes MRI.

The presence of a permanent pacemaker or internal defibrillator is a relative contraindication. In addition, gadolinium, when used as a contrast agent for MRI, increases the risk of systemic nephrogenic fibrosis in patients with chronic 4th or 5th stage kidney disease.

imaging-of-the-chest

X-Ray techniques

X-ray investigations used for chest imaging include chest X-ray, fluoroscopy, high resolution, and multilayer CT and angio-CT.

Chest X-ray

Chest x-ray examination and fluoroscopy are used to obtain images of the lungs and nearby anatomical structures. The chest radiograph provides images relating to internal and external structures in the chest and is very useful to identify any cardiac abnormalities, parenchymal lung, pleura, chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinal and lung ILI. Usually, it is the survey that is first done to study the lungs.

Computed tomography

CT displays the intrathoracic structures and abnormalities more clearly than a standard chest x-ray can. Conventional (planar) CT provides multiple images of cross-sections of the chest, 10 mm thick. Its main advantage is the wide availability. The disadvantages are represented by the movement artifacts and by the limited resolution in the volume of fabric included in a 10 mm slice.

The spiral CT provides multiplanar images of the entire thorax acquired during apnea of 8-10 seconds while the patient is being moved in a continuous manner in the gantry of the CT. Spiral CT is considered at least equivalent to conventional CT for most applications. Before having a CT scan, it is recommended to know the CT scan cost in south Delhi. Its main advantages are speed, less exposure to radiation and the possibility of reconstructing the images on the 3 floors. The software can also generate images of the bronchial mucosa (virtual bronchoscopy).

Magnetic resonance

MRI has a relatively limited role in lung imaging but is preferred over CT in specific circumstances (e.g., for the evaluation of neoplasms of the upper sulcus, possible cysts and indissociable lesions from the chest wall). In patients with suspicion of pulmonary embolism in whom IV contrast agents cannot be used, MRI can sometimes identify coarse proximal emboli, but normally its use is very limited in this pathology.

The advantages of MRI are the absence of radiation exposure for patients, the excellent visualization of vascular structures, the lack of bone artifacts and the excellent contrast of soft tissues.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound is often used to facilitate certain procedures such as thoracentesis and the insertion of central venous catheters. Ultrasound is also very useful for assessing the presence and extent of pleural effusions and is now commonly used to guide thoracentesis to the patient's bed. Ultrasound performed on the patient's bed is becoming common to diagnose pneumothorax.

The biopsy endobronchial ultrasound-guided is increasingly being used in combination with fiber optic bronchoscopy to better locate masses and enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnostic yield of endo-bronchial ultrasound compared to conventional unguided techniques is higher as regards the transbronchial aspiration of the lymph nodes.

CT, MRI, Ultrasound, And X-Ray: To Be Afraid Or Not?

Manifestations of many diseases take us by surprise, change our plans, disturb. On the one hand, the symptoms themselves can scare, and on the other, the need for a diagnosis. CT, MRI, ultrasound, and X-ray - is it harmful or not? And why several - is it possible to do one thing? What do you need to know about the most common methods of medical imaging today? How do they differ from each other? Which diagnostic method is right for you?

ultrasound-and-xray

In the arsenal of modern doctors, there are many diagnostic methods. At the same time, more and more people are talking about overdiagnosis. How does the patient understand that the study is really necessary? In what cases are CT, MRI, ultrasound, and x-rays prescribed?

On overdiagnosis in relation to the patient, we can talk in the case of self-designation. When patients who have some kind of complaints, they prescribe themselves some kind of examination without consulting a doctor- for example, after reading some article on the Internet.

The moment determining the choice of a diagnostic method is the estimated area of ​​damage. For example, if pathology from the pulmonary system is suspected, then the primary method will be radiological. The use of MRI, in this case, is impractical.

Therefore, before undergoing a study, it is better to first see a doctor, and then undergo one or another additional examination by MRI scan centre in New Delhi- both laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostics (ultrasound, CT, etc.). The only way is it possible, on the one hand, to be immediately examined purposefully, and on the other, to avoid unreasonable (often very tangible) material and time costs.

- Each of these research methods has a radiation load on the body?

No, only methods based on x-ray radiation (in particular fluorography, fluoroscopy, and radiography, CT). Ultrasound and MRI do not carry any radiation load, as they are based on other physical phenomena that have nothing to do with radiation.

- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, ultrasound and x-ray - which of these research methods is the safest, and which is the most informative?

The safest of them is an ultrasound scan, and also, in the absence of contraindications, an MRI. In terms of information, CT and MRI will be the leaders, but each in its “nomination”. For example, to detail the pathology of the lungs, CT is most informative, while when examining the brain- MRI.

- Is it true that to clarify the diagnosis, only one diagnostic method is not enough?

If we talk not only about the methods discussed above but about diagnostics in principle, then most often - yes. Diagnosis is a multi-component process. For example, an ultrasound revealed some kind of formation. To clarify its nature, MRI may be needed. Suppose tomography showed the presence of a tumor. But what kind of tumor is it? To answer this question, a biopsy may be necessary, sometimes even a diagnostic operation.

- If the patient has an alternative between CT and MRI - what to choose?

Again, it depends on what area of ​​the body, organ (s) are planned to be examined. If, for example, we are talking about the head or spine, then an MRI will be preferable. Often you can hear the question of what is the difference between MRI and CT scan cost in Delhi NCR, and which one is better. The basis of CT is the principle of x-ray radiation, and MRI - of the magnetic field. Both methods solve their own range of diagnostic tasks, and, if necessary, complement each other.

All About Ultrasound To Know In 2020

Everyone knows how important it is to accurately determine the diagnosis before starting treatment, and not to act blindly. Only such an approach can guarantee the effectiveness of treatment. Currently, many methods are used in medicine. Ultrasound diagnostics is one of them, which allows simple and painless to carry out a qualitative and quantitative assessment of data, to study the morphological and functional characteristics of the structure of organs and systems.

ultrasound-in-2020

The modern ultrasound machine and the high professionalism of the staff allow for high-quality diagnosis. In terms of the combination of positive characteristics with ultrasound, it is difficult to compare any other method, since, probably, no one has such a combination of advantages:

Ultrasound test provides reliable information about the position, shape, and size of the internal organs and small pelvis, as well as the fetus.

  • The study is convenient and does not require complicated preparation
  • Ultrasound is publicly available
  • Ultrasound is harmless and safe for the doctor, patient at any age, including those not yet born (located in the womb)
  • The study is painless and not associated with discomfort
  • Low time spent on research. Ultrasound is performed in real-time. This circumstance gives several advantages at once:
  • No time is needed for processing the material, developing and printing any pictures, etc., the result of the study becomes apparent at the end of the study
  • The researcher sees his “picture” in real-time and has the ability to control the image, achieving the best. The ultra-sonographer will not tell the patient: “Come on Wednesday for the result; if it doesn’t work out, let’s repeat

Ultrasound has virtually no contraindications and restrictions on use.

Ultrasound method features:

  • Identification of the disease in the early stages, when there are no complaints, which is extremely important in relation to cancer
  • Clarification of the diagnosis for a more correct appointment
  • The ability to evaluate treatment results.

Is ultrasound harmful to health?

Each patient, coming to the ultrasound diagnostic room, asks himself the question whether this study will harm him. To answer the first part of the question, it is necessary to present the basic principles of the equipment used. Ultrasound is very high-frequency waves that pass through the tissues of the human body, partially reflected from them. The image on the screen appears due to the computer conversion of the ultrasonic signal to electrical. This method is not associated with any harmful effects and has nothing to do with x-rays.

How Often Do I Need To Use The Use?

Even in the absence of significant health problems, it is advisable to undergo a medical examination once a year. After all, any disease detected at an early stage (even cancer) is usually well treated. Several objective tests by ultrasound labs will allow you to obtain objective information about the state of your body: a general blood and urine test, an ultrasound scan, an ECG, an X-ray (or FLG) of the lungs every 1-2 years. Passing these tests will not take much time, but will help to maintain health for many years. Allocate 1-2 days a year for this!

The standard ultrasound screening protocol (performed annually) includes an examination of the following organs: thyroid gland, abdominal organs (liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen), kidneys, and pelvic organs. In the absence of ultrasonic signs of a change in the structure of these organs, there is nothing to worry about.

Prostate Ultrasound With Biopsy

Prostate ultrasound with biopsy is an examination aimed at drawing up a diagnosis in relation to the state of the prostate following the manifestation of certain disorders including urination difficulties, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, burning, etc.

ultrasound-with-biopsy

This diagnostic test is invasive in that the prostate gland is located behind the bladder and needs to be examined to make it visible to the ultrasound system through a cannula that fits into the anus.

The reasons why prostate ultrasound test in Delhi is required with biopsy are different and among these are the high PSA values, the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, the control that is generally carried out after the age of 50 for preventive purposes, to investigate the possible causes of infertility in which prostatic activity is also connected.

The biopsy, that is the taking of a small quantity of tissues to be analysed histologically, becomes necessary when the presence of cells that could lead to a diagnosis of cancer is suspected, following the alteration of the value relative to the PSA, an acronym that is for "prostate specific antigen", but also after observing new growths during a rectal exploration.

Before the prostatic ultrasound with biopsy it is necessary that the patient prepares in time and in this he is followed by the urologist. It is necessary to take antibiotic therapy against potential infections in biopsy a few days before and suspend all those drugs that could interfere with blood coagulation. The suspension times are always related to the dispositions of the urologist in relation to the age and the concomitant pathologies presented by the same patient.

For the particularity of the execution of the prostate ultrasound test in Delhi it is good to have the bladder full that is to avoid going to the bathroom at least an hour before, and not to be fasting. The best view of the prostate requires that the canal be cleaned of any remaining stools. To do this it is necessary to perform an enema at least 3 hours before the diagnostic examination or, alternatively, to use glycerine suppositories both the previous evening and in the morning.

Of course, while this test is taking place, the patient will be naked and curled up in a foetal position with the legs drawn towards the chest.

Prostate ultrasound with biopsy involves local anaesthesia that affects both the superficial tissues and the area near the prostate so that the patient feels the least discomfort possible. The anesthetic is injected into the perineal area between the anus and the scrotum and in the following days it is possible for a small hematoma to appear which is reabsorbed within a short time.

Prostatic ultrasonography with biopsy is then carried out transrectally, then introducing a suitably covered probe with a latex glove sprinkled with a lubricating gel liquid, which relieves discomfort in the walls of the rectum.

For biopsy with a prostate ultrasound first the doctor performs a manual rectal inspection and then uses a thin catheter through which a sort of needle is inserted that will take the tissues to be analyzed in various areas of the gland, so as to have a significant sample. All this in conjunction with ultrasound that serves to visualize the affected area.

FAQ About Prostate Ultrasound

When for clinical purposes it is necessary to verify and monitor the health conditions of the prostate gland, it is essential to rely on a prostate ultrasound. This diagnostic test is performed by an ultrasound probe, and allows to identify any changes due to an ongoing disease. The pathological processes, in fact, can alter the size of the gland, but also its shape.

prostate-ultrasound-faq

How to perform prostate ultrasound

To carry out prostate ultrasound scans, an ultrasound probe of appropriate size is needed, bearing in mind that this is an examination that is carried out transrectally. In other words, the probe is inserted into the rectum, and allows images on high-frequency sound waves to be displayed on a connected screen.

The examination itself is not painful, but it is still possible to feel a certain discomfort or a particular discomfort when the probe is introduced into the rectum. The ultrasound scan is based on images that are provided in real time by devices that are equipped with transducers capable of optimizing ultrasound tissue penetration, by virtue of specific frequency ranges of these ultrasounds. At the end of the ultrasound study, the images that have been generated are recorded in digital format so that they can become part of the patient's medical record.

How to prepare for a prostate ultrasound?

Prostate ultrasound test in Delhi, therefore, is a very important exam: also for this reason it is essential that it be carried out by a professional with proven competence. The most suitable specialist to deal with is the medical radiologist. The patient is made to lie down on a bed on one side, usually the right one, and is invited to assume a fetal position, with the knees flexed. Before the probe is inserted, the doctor takes care of performing a rectal exploration with the fingers, also to track down any mechanical impediments that could make the introduction difficult.

How long does a prostate ultrasound last?

It takes at most ten minutes to complete a prostate ultrasound, which also has the merit of guaranteeing an instant report. The only shrewdness required of the patient consists in undergoing, more or less 3 or 4 hours before the examination, an enema, so that during the investigation the rectal ampulla is completely empty. Instead, the bladder must be full: for this reason the patient must not pee before the exam, while he is invited to drink a lot, as long as he avoids fizzy drinks. It should be kept in mind that, with bleeding hemorrhoids or anal fissures, an ultrasound cannot be performed.

Why we need a prostate ultrasound?

With prostate ultrasound test in Delhi it is possible to verify that the gland is in an optimal state of health. The ultrasound scan, therefore, can be carried out as a control test, in normal conditions, or to proceed with assessments made necessary by the finding of specific symptoms, such as a benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostatitis. Sometimes, it may happen that a digito-rectal control exam raises doubts about the condition of the gland, and therefore causes an ultrasound to be requested.

How often should you undergo a prostate ultrasound?

Transrectal prostate ultrasound in elderly men should be considered a routine examination, and should therefore be performed on a regular basis. For young people, however, it is only necessary if there is a concrete suspicion. As we have said, the examination serves to find possible changes in the gland, perhaps early: it is not certain that a normal urological clinical examination will make it possible to verify these alterations, just as one cannot rely solely on the symptomatology, which in most cases of the cases is non-specific, if not absent. Sometimes, the prostate increases in size following an inflammatory prostatitis that may have been caused by drug therapy.

Ultrasound Diagnosis Of Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy

The term "ectopic pregnancy" or "extrauterine" is defined as the pathological condition in which the implantation of the fertilized egg takes place in locations other than the uterine cavity. The recognition by pregnancy ultrasound and early treatment of this condition can help preserve the possibility of future pregnancies.

ectopic-pregnancy

What is ectopic pregnancy?

When the nesting takes place outside the uterus we talk about an extrauterine pregnancy (tubal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, abdominal pregnancy); instead, "ectopic intrauterine pregnancy" is defined when the implantation takes place inside the uterus but in an improper place, as in the case of the implant in the cervical canal (cervical pregnancy) or at the level of the tubal ostium (corneal pregnancy).

What are the causes of ectopic pregnancy?

Tubar pregnancies - the most common type of ectopic pregnancy, equal to about 95% of the total - take place when

The descent of the fertilized egg towards the uterus is delayed or deviated (due to anatomical lesions, inflammatory lesions, congenital tubal alterations, endometriosis or alterations of the pelvic anatomy due to previous surgical operations).

The development of the fertilized egg is accelerated so that it reaches the degree of maturity necessary for the implant when it is still in the tuba.

The underlying causes of other forms of extrauterine pregnancy can mostly be traced to the same factors as tubal pregnancy. Sometimes the cause is unknown.

What are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?

If the pregnancy is initial (4 ^ -6 ^ week), the patient is often asymptomatic. The suspicion of the presence of an ectopic pregnancy is therefore given by the presence of a positive pregnancy test without the visualization of the gestational chamber inside the uterine cavity. Blood losses are almost constantly present in cases of ectopic pregnancy. In cases of more advanced pregnancy, which involves the progressive erosion of the tube up to the rupture, to vaginal bleeding, it is accompanied by important pelvic and / or abdominal pain. In the most serious cases, that is when the tuba breaks, the consistent blood loss in the abdomen (hemoperitoneum) can lead to dizziness and fainting up to a real state of shock.

How to prevent ectopic pregnancy?

An ectopic pregnancy cannot be prevented, but some risk factors can be reduced. Among the virtuous behaviors that it is good to adopt, limit the number of sexual partners and use condoms during sexual intercourse, in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections and reduce the risk of developing conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease.

The ultrasound test of suspected ectopic pregnancy is essentially carried out by:

Analysis of the blood value and changes of the HCG hormone (pregnancy hormone).

Transvaginal and trans-abdominal ultrasonography, which make it possible to exclude the presence of a gestational chamber in the uterine cavity and to visualize pregnancy in an ectopic location. Ultrasound also allows the recognition of blood effusions in the pelvic and / or abdominal area.

Treatments

Ectopic pregnancy can be treated:

In early cases, without any therapy (spontaneous resolution) or through a medical therapy based on methotrexate (a chemotherapy that prevents the cellular growth of pregnancy).

In the most advanced or symptomatic cases, or when drug therapy has failed, through laparoscopic surgery. Depending on the case, the affected tube (salpingectomy) is removed or only the ectopic pregnancy is removed.

Different Types Of Ultrasound Screening

The first level ultrasound consists of the ultrasound performed on the territory to all the pregnant women.

The regional protocol foresees three echography:

The first trimester, at 10-13 weeks, aims to confirm the viability of the foetus and to date pregnancy, i.e. to establish whether the size of the foetus is compatible with the weeks of reported amenorrhea. Furthermore, in the evaluation of twin pregnancies, the determination of chronicity (= number of placentas) plays a fundamental role.

ultrasound-screening

The second trimester, at 18-22 weeks (morphological), aims to evaluate the anatomy of the foetus, according to the guidelines. The guidelines are directives that guarantee a quality standard (ie the operator is obliged to look at certain fundamental structures). The amount of amniotic fluid and the position of the placenta are also observed during the examination. Furthermore, the foetus is measured to check that growth is regular and that development proceeds normally.

The third trimester, at 30-34 weeks (growth), aims to assess foetal growth. The amount of amniotic fluid and the position of the placenta is also checked.

What is second level ultrasound?

The level 2 ultrasound is an ultrasound on indication that is aimed at solving a specific question. Local operators send the patient for more detailed control in a centre where more sophisticated ultrasound machines are available. The indications for the second level can be multiple:

  • Suspected malformation
  • Finding of soft markers
  • Control of foetal growth, if there is a suspicion of a defect or over-growth
  • Reduction or excess of amniotic fluid
  • Taking teratogenic drugs in pregnancy
  • Infection in pregnancy
  • Some maternal pathologies, for example insulin-dependent diabetes
  • Previous born with malformation
  • Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid

What is third-level ultrasound?

In the case where second level ultrasound has been confirmed as the existence of a malformation picture, the ultrasound evaluation will be performed by personnel who are particularly expert in the evaluation of anatomy and in the management of foetal pathology. This must be done in accordance with the most modern concepts of foetal medicine, and with the help of the most recent literature data.

The expert in foetal medicine (who is an obstetric doctor), performs the diagnosis and uses the advice of professionals of different specialties: geneticist, pediatric cardiologist, infectivologist, orthopedist, neurologist, pediatric surgeon (depending on the malformation highlighted), who they are called to complete prenatal counseling and to establish continuity of treatment after birth.

What is the minimal ultrasound?

The minimal ultrasound is that ultrasound check that simply aims to supplement the clinical examination. The parameters that can be evaluated include, for example, the display of the fetal heart rate, the amount of amniotic fluid and the fetal presentation (ie the position of the foetus in utero). The ultrasound clinic that performs “minimum” checks is not required to issue a report, but can record the result of this check in the patient's medical record. It is therefore important to point out that not all doctors who handle ultrasound probes are ultrasound scanners, and that a check carried out without issuing written reports IS NOT AND DOES NOT REPLACE an official ultrasound scan.

Scanner, MRI, Radio: Which Exam For Which Indication?

Depending on the medical indication, the specificities of the area to be studied, or the profile of the patient, the doctor has a wide choice of medical imaging techniques.

X-ray

Standard radiography uses X-rays that pass through the human body, being more or less absorbed by the tissues according to their density. It allows to obtain two-dimensional images of "full" structures. This technique is, therefore, well suited to the observation of bones and joints. Orthopedics, rheumatology, or orthodontics, use radiography to study trauma (fractures, etc.), skeletal deformities, or the implantation of teeth.

It is also possible to visualize certain organs or hollow parts, usually invisible to X-rays, by "filling" them with an opaque contrast product: this is the contrast radiography.

CT or computed tomography

The scanner, which also uses X-rays, explores the body in volume and thus makes it possible to establish 3D images of organs or tissues scanned: bone, muscles, vessels, or brain. The images obtained are "sectional" images.

The scanner makes it possible to visualize a change of volume or a structural anomaly (tumor, embolism, aneurysm, etc.). It will reveal a narrowing of the coronary arteries in case of chest pain or myocardial infarction. It can also be used in surgery to inform doctors about areas where the intervention is planned, as well as oncology, to control the response to chemotherapy or guide biopsies.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

The MRI allows to visualize the anatomical structure of the body volume. Anatomic MRI is distinguished from functional MRI.

Anatomical MRI is based on the magnetization of hydrogen atoms present wherever there is water and fat. It is, therefore, particularly adapted to the observation of "soft tissues," such as the brain, the spinal cord, the muscles, the tendons, or the viscera (liver, spleen, and kidney).

Functional MRI is based on the measurement of the deoxy-hemoglobin of red blood cells (the hemoglobin devoid of oxygen leaving the organs). It thus makes it possible to follow the influx of oxygenated blood in the organs, and thus it is very used in the cerebrovascular accidents, but also, in neurology, to make the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosisby visiting MRI test labs in Delhi.

Ultrasound

An ultrasound probe emits ultrasound, sound waves imperceptible to the ear, in the direction of a solid object. They bounce off the object and then return to the starting point. The system allows to explore the heart, the viscera (liver, spleen, pancreas, bladder, bladder, kidneys), and the genital tract (ovaries, uterus, prostate). On the other hand, the digestive tract, the lungs, and the bones are not acceptable.

Doppler ultrasound allows the vascular system to be explored with a thinner probe that can be introduced into the vessel lumen. It is indicated for exploratory examinations in diseases of the veins and arteries. It is important to first know Doppler ultrasound cost.

Finally, ultrasounds of pregnancy, which do not present a danger for the foetus, allow its morphology and its environment: amniotic fluid, placenta, cord.

Renal Failure And Diagnosis

The acute and chronic kidney diseases, arterial hypertension and diabetes, as well as the prolonged use of certain medications and intoxication by some heavy metals, can irreversibly damage the kidneys and lead to a ' renal insufficiency. Any significant kidney damage that lasts more than three months and does not recede with the treatment can be considered chronic, therefore, what we call chronic renal failure is the effect of a progressive and slow decline in the ability of the kidneys to filter the blood and purify it from the waste products of the body's metabolism, especially that of protein substances.

Causes of Renal Failure

Among the causes of renal failure, the most serious are currently diabetes and arterial hypertension because, if not properly controlled, they cause a rapid decrease in renal function.  But they are not the only ones. Among the causes of chronic kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure, we also find:

  • The glomerulonephritis and acute and conical pyelonephritis - inflammation of the small renal blood vessels (glomeruli) and the small tubes (tubules) through which the urine passes to be eliminated
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract often with pyelonephritis, or a strong inflammation that involves all the urinary tract and the kidney itself
  • Autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), in which antirene antibodies irreversibly damage the organ
  • Some renal anomalies such as the presence of polycystic kidney disease.

As a result of these diseases there is an accumulation of waste substances or waste from the metabolism which lead first to the increase in the concentration of nitrogen (azotemia) and other substances in the blood, compromising its optimal balance and making it more acidic. This causes numerous other ailments that we will now see.

The blood and urine tests are essential to confirm the presence of poor renal function." In particular, for the complete diagnosis of renal insufficiency we perform:

Blood and urinary tests

Renal ultrasound test

Possible renal biopsy, KFT (Kidney function test), or the removal of a tissue sample from a kidney for examination (it could be the most accurate test, but it is not advisable if the results of an ultrasound examination show that the kidneys are small and with scars).

Urinalysis can detect the presence of proteins, abnormal cells and other problems. Azotaemia and above all, creatininemia (which analysescreatine, a substance contained in the muscles, present in the blood) are the best indicators for assessing the degree of renal failure (based on renal filtration capacity). Furthermore, there may be other blood changes- such as increased potassium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone in the blood, decrease in calcium, calcitriol and vitamin.

The ultrasound, which is done to exclude an obstruction or abnormality of the urinary tract and to verify the size of the kidneys, shows, in chronic renal insufficiency, the shrinking and irregularity of the kidney.

Having identified symptoms and diagnoses of chronic renal failure, we now want to understand what the consequences for the body are.

Applications And Need Of Doppler Ultrasound Test

Doppler ultrasound, or simply Eco Doppler, is one of the types of ultrasound that, based on the use of ultrasound, uses the Doppler effect.

In the case of ultrasound, the sound waves leave the ultrasound through the transducer, and bounce off the moving blood, generating different waves depending on the direction and speed of the blood flow. When the blood approaches the ultrasound the frequency will be higher and when it moves away less, this alteration in the ultrasound waves is interpreted by the ultrasound and it assigns a specific colour for each frequency, red, blue and yellow.

Through this method and thanks to this physical principle of sound waves, it is possible to evaluate the flow of vascular structures of any part of the body, being able to determine its existence, its speed and direction of flow.

Why is it important to perform a doppler ultrasound?

The Doppler ultrasound allows to know the amount of blood flow circulating through cavities and veins baby. Its importance is that its results can tell you how much blood is pumped with each beat, thus determining the good state of the baby's heart, in addition to corroborating that the blood is reaching the foetus correctly, and with it the oxygen and the nutrients

But not only important is that sense. Its realization can help detect cardiac malformations in the foetus, problems with the umbilical cord and placenta, so that you and your gynaecologist begin to act quickly, or you can simply rule out these types of problems and make sure that your baby will be born healthy.

When do you have to have a Doppler ultrasound?

This test is usually done to all pregnant women in the third trimester, starting at the 25th week of pregnancy. However, Doppler ultrasound is a non-mandatory quarterly test, which can also be done in the first and second trimesters if the gynecologist considers it necessary.

The cases in which the doctor can recommend you to do this ultrasound are the following:

In case it is suspected that there is a growth delay in the foetus. In this circumstance the doppler ultrasound is very useful to control that the baby receives blood, oxygen and nutrients correctly. In addition, it will also help to know if there are significant blood disorders to anticipate the time of delivery or to predict whether there will be a premature delivery.

If your pregnancy is listed as a risk pregnancy it is recommended that you have an ultrasound of this type in each trimester of pregnancy.

If you suffer from hypertension, what is known as preeclampsia, or you have circulatory problems in the veins. In these cases, if you decide to have this test, you will rule out that your problems are affecting the correct development of the baby.

In the case of heart disease, Doppler ultrasound also works, as you can see if this problem can affect the growth of your baby. This test is performed with the accompaniment of an echocardiogram.

If you plan to go through surgery, Doppler ultrasound is also necessary, since thanks to the study of the flow of the area to be operated you can see if there will be complications a priori.

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