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Major Liver Disease During Ultrasound

Steatosis of the liver (different names may be: fatty hepatosis, fatty infiltration, fatty liver), which occurs on liver ultrasound, is an etiologically and pathogenetically heterogeneous syndrome, which is characterized by a prolonged and significant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. The main factor of steatosis is alcohol abuse, diabetes, obesity, unbalanced nutrition (protein deficiency), chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by impaired absorption (enteritis, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, etc.), chronic debilitating diseases (cancer, anemia, cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency, etc.), toxic (hepatotropic, medicinal) and bacterial factors.

Ultrasound test with a diffuse form of fatty hepatosis, as a rule, reveals an increase in the size of the liver, an unclear contour. The edges of the liver are rounded. Characteristic features include increased echogenicity of the parenchyma. Its structure is in most cases homogeneous, however, sometimes on the background of hyperechoic tissue, it is possible to detect areas of reduced reflection with uneven, fuzzy contours that do not deform the vascular pattern.

These are areas of unchanged parenchyma, which, as a rule, are detected in the portal fissure of the liver, in the projection of I, IV, V segments. The sound conduction of the liver is often reduced; the vascular pattern is depleted. In addition to diffuse, ultrasound of the liver also produces local and focal forms, when fatty infiltration extends only to limited segments and sectors of the liver, and sometimes manifests itself in the form of individual small zones, resembling focal education.

Ultrasound picture of fatty hepatosis does not always allow to clearly differentiate it from other diffuse organ lesions (chronic hepatitis, the initial stage of cirrhosis). Crucial importance in the diagnosis of steatosis and its delimitation from chronic hepatitis belongs to the puncture biopsy of the liver.

How does hepatitis show on ultrasound?

Acute hepatitis is an acute degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver. Hepatitis can be alcoholic or viral etiology, develop as a result of exposure to toxic or metabolic factors. The main ultrasound sign of this disease is hepatomegaly. In a significant number of observations, moreover, an increase in the size of the spleen is found. The contour of the liver usually remains clear and smooth.

Edges can be both sharp and rounded. In the severe course, accompanied by the presence of foci of necrosis, the parenchyma has a heterogeneous structure due to the appearance of multiple areas of reduced echogenicity alternating with fragments of unchanged parenchyma. With significant swelling of the liver tissue, its echogenicity is reduced to a greater extent.

Organ conduction is often increased; as a result, the vascular pattern becomes clearer, and the walls of the portal vein more contrasting. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes in the area of the hepatoduodenal ligament may be of some help in making a diagnosis.

As a rule, on ultrasound in chronic hepatitis, an increase in the size of the liver due to the right and left lobes is observed, a rounding of the edges and an increase in the angles formed by them can be observed. The contour of the liver often remains clear and smooth. The structure of the parenchyma is usually diffusely heterogeneous, the echo is increased, and the sound conductivity is reduced in most cases. There is also a progressive impoverishment of the vascular pattern. In chronic hepatitis, diffuse liver damage was found only in 2/3 cases, which, according to the ultrasound labs, is due to the absence in most cases of fairly pronounced fibrosis and/or steatosis.

How Thyroid Can Get Inspected?

Especially if you are a woman or if there are already similar cases in your family, you should monitor your thyroid, a gland that produces fundamental hormones for many of your body's activities.

The thyroid is a small endocrine gland shaped like a butterfly. It is located more or less at the base of your neck and produces several hormones that the body uses to perform some fundamental tasks, such as metabolism control, bone and muscle development, and brain functioning. For this reason, it is very important to keep it monitored. These are absolutely non-invasive procedures like a normal medical examination or the classic blood test.

The thyroid tests is above all, a simple physical examination and a blood test to assess whether the amount of hormones produced by this gland is regular or not. In case you suspect a more serious ongoing problem, your doctor, or a specialist, will prescribe you more detailed tests like a scan or even an ultrasound.

Medical examination and thyroid palpation

The first exam consists of a simple medical examination. Your GP, once you tell him the symptoms that made you worry, will look carefully at the area of your neck, at the level of the thyroid, in search of possible asymmetries, anomalies or swellings visible even with the naked eye. Then he will proceed to the palpation of the area from different positions, positioning himself both in front of and behind you, and will ensure that he is not suspiciously enlarged. If you notice any alteration, you will proceed with other, more detailed investigations.

Blood tests

In a blood test, the number of thyroid hormones present in the blood will be quantified. If it turns out to be too low, you may suffer from hypothyroidism; if the concentration is excessive, the problem could be hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid ultrasound

This is a normal ultrasound, with which, thanks to an ultrasound probe that scans the affected area, it is possible to identify the presence of various abnormalities in the form and constitution of the thyroid. First of all, the ultrasound test detects the enlargement and a possible goiter, but also the presence of nodules or a tumor mass.

Thyroid autoantibody test

Again, it is a simple blood test, but this time it serves to evaluate another datum: the presence or absence of thyroid autoantibodies. They are cells that defend your body, but, and they only attack this gland. As a result, they can cause malfunctions, but also inflammations such as thyroiditis.

Thyroid scintigraphy

If previous tests suggest a tumor, nodule formation or Basedow-Graves bite, your doctor or specialist could prescribe a thyroid scan. A decidedly more invasive procedure than the previous ones, which involves the injection of a radiopharmaceutical and screening through a device called gamma-camera.

Thyroid biopsy

Through a special needle, a microframmento of your thyroid is taken to be analyzed in the laboratory. If there is a suspicion that you have a tumor, this is the most reliable tool for verifying whether the formation is benign or not.

Frequently Asked Questions about Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound is an imaging study that uses ultrasound to evaluate the internal organs of the abdomen, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.

It can also evaluate vascular structures of the abdomen, as well as structures of the lymphatic system.

An ultrasound is used, which is used through a transducer the emission and reception of high-frequency sound waves. This transducer moves through the skin of the patient, and above the organ that interests to study, generating images of organs and structures within the abdomen. The same ultrasound through the transducer receives these waves and creates an image of the organ under study.

Each organ or tissue returns as a sound echo the waves that by its own structure generates given the density of the tissue to which it is formed, for example, the waves that emit bone, fluids or adipose tissue will be different.

How is an abdominal ultrasound done?

It is an ultrasound done lying down, and a transparent water-based conductive gel is applied to the skin on the abdomen that serves as a means for the transmission of ultrasound.

The doctor may need to change the position while performing the study, to examine different areas of the abdomen; you may also be asked to hold your breath for short periods during the study.

This ultrasound can be requested to investigate the cause of abdominal pain, kidney infections, diagnose tumors or ascites, and evaluate the presence of lithiasis in the gallbladder or kidney, among other possible causes for the study.

What is the preparation for an abdominal ultrasound?

The person is required to fast for at least 8 hours, to facilitate the observation of all the organs to be evaluated.

Does abdominal ultrasound generate any discomfort?

It is a study done by Ultrasound Labs that generates little or no discomfort. The conductive gel can feel a bit cold and damp. It is a rapid study in general and that the patient tolerates very well.

How long is an abdominal ultrasound?

Approximately an abdominal ultrasound study lasts about 30 minutes.

Are there risks to perform the abdominal ultrasound study?

There are no risks to perform it, since it is not exposed to ionizing radiation and neither is it an invasive study.

In an abdominal ultrasound, Doppler can also be used to increase the evaluation of the organs under study, through the study of its vascularization. In the course of Doppler, you can hear sounds similar to the pulse of an artery.

After the study, the patient can resume their activities in a normal and daily manner.

One of the benefits is low whole abdomen ultrasound price, its availability, and it does not use ionizing radiation.

An image is generated in real time, being a tool that eventually serves as a guide for minimally invasive procedures such as aspiration biopsies, and fine needle aspirations for drainage of liquids in the abdomen.

It has limitations for the study of hollow organs, that is, the intestine and the stomach mainly, since the air or gas contained in these organs reflects the ultrasound beam and prevents the formation of a clear image of the organ.

Diagnosing the Health Issues in Your Child

How can parents prevent and treat these conditions to give their children a healthy and happy adult life?

Congenital heart diseases are problems in the structure and functioning of the heart due to the abnormal development of the heart before birth. It is the most common congenital anomaly, and its presentation and treatment will depend on the type of malformation that is since there are several types.

The majority of congenital heart diseases are presented as an isolated defect without association with other diseases. They can also be part of various genetic and chromosomal syndromes, such as Down syndrome. And although congenital heart disease is present at birth, it may not be visible immediately or cause problems for years.

Although for most congenital disabilities a known cause cannot be identified, it is known that the consumption of alcohol and some chemical substances during pregnancy, and certain infections such as rubella, can contribute to its development. It is also important to control the level of blood sugar especially in pregnant women with diabetes and perform periodic ultrasounds to detect any problems.

Early prevention, the key

The first preventive measure is fetal cardiac ultrasound when the child is still in the uterus. However, the condition can be detected only years later, when the child is in early childhood, so periodic checks are essential. Besides, there are two other forms of diagnosis: puncture and nuchal translucency. Any of these types of studies must be done after week 20.

With early detection and adequate treatment, the child can be provided with quality and normal life expectancy, something that for years was unthinkable due to the lack of information and technology.

In general terms, the treatments will depend on the type of heart disease that is suffered. The milder ones disappear alone over the years, other more serious require medication and in the most complex one or several surgical procedures will be required.

Diagnostic tests

If the results of level 1 ultrasound are abnormal, doctors usually use diagnostic tests to determine if the baby has congenital disabilities or other possible problems. These tests are also offered to women with high-risk pregnancies, such as women aged 35 or older, women who have had their previous pregnancy affected by birth defects, women with chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, lupus, diabetes or epilepsy, and women who use certain medications.

High-resolution ultrasound

The ultrasound creates images of the baby. This ultrasound, also called second-level ultrasound, is used to look more closely at possible birth defects or other problems that have been indicated in the results of previous screening tests. It is usually done between weeks 18 and 22 of pregnancy.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

In the chorionic villus test (CVS), the doctors of Ultrasound Clinic removes a small sample of the placental tissue, called chorionic villus, to analyze and determine if the baby has chromosomal or genetic alterations. In general, CVS is offered to women who have received an abnormal result on a first-trimester screening test or who may be at higher risk. This test is done between weeks 10 and 12 of pregnancy, before amniocentesis.

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is an examination in which the doctor removes a small amount of amniotic fluid from the area surrounding the baby. The fluid is tested to understand the baby's protein levels, which can indicate certain birth defects. Amniotic fluid cells can be analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and genetic problems, such as cystic fibrosis.

Is there Any Difference Between 3D Ultrasound and 4D Ultrasound?

Many people wonder what the difference between 3D ultrasound and 4D ultrasounds is! Initially, these techniques based on ultrasound were limited to 2D. Technological advances now allow exploration 3 and 4d. A 3D ultrasound is a scanner that produces a three-dimensional image similar to a photograph, rather than a cross-sectional image obtained in a 2D scan. A 4D scanner is the term of the technique used. A 4D scan means that instead of just getting an image, you get a video. In a 4D scan, the actions of the fetus are visible in real time. In simple terms, a 3D ultrasound is an image, and 4D ultrasounds are videos showing movement.

Is it safe for mother and baby?

The biological effects and the safety of ultrasound techniques have received considerable attention in recent years. Several research articles, textbooks, and institutional documents have been published. The American Institute of Medicine in Ultrasound (AIUM) has stated that significant biological effects have not been independently recorded. Also, no risk has been identified with the use of ultrasound diagnostics in humans.

Do I have to see a doctor before the visit?

Yes of course. You are required to visit a Ultrasound Lab and a medical diagnostic ultrasound of your fetus before visiting the ultrasound center.

What is the best time to have a 4D/3D ultrasound?

It is recommended that you do your 4D/3D ultrasound after 16 weeks. From 16 to 20 weeks is the best time to see the whole body, but the face will not be fully formed. From week 24 the baby's face will be more developed, but it is not easy that the whole body cannot be observed. We will see the different parts of the body in separate sections.

What can I do to maximize my chances of having a clear picture?

The clarity and quality of the images of 4D ultrasounds depend both on the sonographer and on several factors that are beyond the control. These factors include, but are not limited to a percentage of body fat of the pregnant mother, position of the fetus, age, position of the placenta, etc.

To maximize the chances of obtaining good images in 4D the pregnant mother can do three simple things: (1) hydrate, taking infusions during pregnancy, fruit or drinking more (at least three days before your appointment), (2) getting a good night's rest before your appointment, and (3) eating something sweet 10 to 20 minutes before your appointment. Although these things are not going to guarantee a good ultrasound session, the possibilities will increase. Always check with your doctor before taking any of these assessments.

The 4D ultrasound in Delhi are increasingly popular, to the point that most pregnant women get a raise to try to know what their baby before seeing it in person. Anyway, we must also recognize that a large number of couples still do not know what this new technology can offer unique and consider whether the differences between a 3D/4D echo are significant enough to decide to do it.

Kidney Ultrasound and its Aim

Patients suffering from renal colic without a history of kidney stones usually undergo non-contrast computed tomography. This technique does not require preliminary preparation of the patient, and it does not depend on the operator or the patient. Its main disadvantages are the high cost and use of ionizing radiation. Patients with a history of kidney stones require a conventional X-ray and Doppler ultrasound of kidney.

These are usually the first diagnostic tests that are performed. Also, in many areas of India, computed tomography is not generally available, and ultrasonography of the kidneys can be quickly and significantly assisted in diagnosing the patient. In addition to diagnosing obstructive uropathy, ultrasound can evaluate the condition of other abdominal organs with concomitant diseases.

Ultrasound Test scanning of the kidney can demonstrate the acoustic properties of its tissue, determine the pathological displacement of the organ as a result of the extra-renal mass, or determine whether hydronephrosis is secondary to the kidney stones. Also, ultrasound can detect a circadian fluid buildup such as a hematoma or abscess, determine the size of the kidneys and assess its parenchyma in detail, detect enlarged ureters and hydronephrosis, and identify kidney images with congenital anomalies.

The kidney is displayed on the ultrasound as an organ with a smooth outer contour, surrounded by a reflected thin stripe of the kidney fat. The renal parenchyma surrounds a large central renal sinus, which contains calyxes, pelvis, papillae, vessels, and lymphatic vessels. Because of the fat layer, the tissue of the renal sinus is depicted as an area of great echoing by a weaker variable contour. If two separate collection systems of the renal sinus are seen separated by a fatty layer, then doubling of the collective operation of the kidney by ultrasound should be suspected.

If the patient has a significant amount of perineum fat, the high-frequency sensor cannot provide penetration to the required depth to optimally visualize the kidney area on ultrasound. Thicker regions of the kidneys can appear in the form of hypoechoic structures. A detailed study of the ultrasound test price in Delhi can also be entirely or partially closed if the patient has the hepatocellular disease, gallstone disease, had chest and abdominal interventions, or there are adhesions between the liver and the kidneys. The use of the second harmonic visualization and tissue contrast technology, which is actively used, can help optimize the visualization of the organs.

The criteria for type I change on renal ultrasound include the following:

  • The intensity of the echostructure in the cortex should be equal to or higher than in the neighboring liver or spleen;
  • The power of the echostructure in the cortex should be similar to the adjacent renal sinus.

Minor signs include loss of identifiable arched vessels and a certain accentuation of the echo-structure on the cortico-medullary layer.

Type II - changes can show ultrasound evident focal disturbances of normal anatomy with any volume lesion, including cysts, tumors, abscesses, and hematomas.

A Complete Guide On Ultrasound: Procedure, Preparation And Purpose

Ultrasound is a term that we come across everyday and we’ve seen people around us getting this test done. But what ultrasound really is? For those who are still living under the rock, ultrasound is a type of medical test that brings to use high frequency sound waves in order to capture live images of the inside of your body. Also popularly referred as Sonography, today ultrasound is one of the most widely used imaging techniques by doctors all over the world to identify problems inside the human body. What differentiates ultrasound from all the other imaging techniques is that it does not use any kind of radiation. Here in this blog we will look deeply into the purpose, procedure and preparation of ultrasound scan.

Purpose of Ultrasound

Most of the people associate the term ultrasound with pregnancy but the medical test has many purposes beyond it. Yes, ultrasound is most commonly used in scanning the stomach of a mother to be. The medical test provides the mother with the first view of her unborn child. Apart from pregnancy, ultrasound has also a wide variety of other purposes such as detecting problems in kidney, liver, eyes, bladder, brain and other vital body parts. Also the medical technique is very helpful in guiding the surgeon’s movement in complex medical procedures such as biopsies.

How to Prepare yourself for an Ultrasound Test

There is no predefined preparation for the ultrasound test but it all depends upon the body part or organ that has to be tested. In cases when the abdomen of the patient is to be examined the doctor will tell you to fast before eight hours. In other cases such as liver, gall bladder or pancreas the doctor may tell you to keep away from fat free food. For distinct cases there are different types of do’s and don’ts that doctors often advise patients. Before an ultrasound test you should inform the doctor about any medications or drugs that you have been prescribed. Be open to your doctor and follow his instructions carefully in order to avoid any kind of inconvenience later on. Although there are no side effects of an ultrasound tests but you need to adhere to the precautions briefed by your doctor.

How the Ultrasound is Actually Conducted

The ultrasound test is basically done lying down with the part meant to be tested left exposed. An ultrasound professional is called a sonographer and has deep knowledge about the imaging technique. When you visit an ultrasound clinic the sonographer applies some special kind of lubricant jelly to your body skin. The main motive behind it is to create friction so that the ultrasound transducer can be rubbed easily on the skin and moreover it also helps in transmitting the sound waves. The transducer then sends high frequency sounds, the waves then echo and reflect back once they hit any dense object such as a bone or any organ. This forms an image on the computer that can be interpreted by a doctor. The process usually doesn't take much time to complete but the time may vary depending on the complexity and on which part of the body is being examined.

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