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Alzheimer's Disease: Ultrasound To The Rescue Of The Brain

There are about 50 million people worldwide who suffer from Alzheimer's disease. This number, which will increase even more with the increase in the elderly population, has made Alzheimer's disease one of the biggest health problems of our time. There is no definitive cure for the disease currently known. With the drugs we have, we can only slow the course of the disease.

rescue-of-the-brain

Alzheimer's disease results from a slow degeneration of neurons, starting in the hippocampus (a brain structure essential for memory) and then spreading to the rest of the brain. It is characterized by recent memory disorders, executive functions, and orientation in time and space. The patient gradually loses his cognitive faculties and his autonomy.

It is characterized by neurological degeneration which affects cognitive capacities, including memory. If drugs can slow this process down, the disease is still incurable.

But research continues to open up avenues. The ultrasound technique already being tested for brain tumors could also help Alzheimer's patients. Since the brain is a very "tight" organ, chemotherapy has great difficulty in penetrating it, but ultrasound has the property of making it more permeable and of facilitating the access of the chemo to the tumor. Patients are currently in clinical trials, and the method is so promising that it will soon also be tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

What if we could treat Alzheimer's disease or brain tumors more effectively?

The blood-brain barrier is a kind of physiological shield all around the brain. Its mission is to prevent possible toxins from entering it. A protective barrier which also complicates the treatment of neurological diseases since therapeutic fluids, drugs cannot or very little cross it.

Alzheimer's disease, sometimes considered the disease of the century, could be cured thanks to an extraordinarily promising new technique using ultrasound to remove aggregates of toxic proteins suspected of causing this famous disease as well as dementia. A treatment that has proven itself in animal tests.

The ultrasound test technique is exceptional in that it opens this shield and therefore makes the barrier permeable. We now know that this makes it possible to better distribute chemotherapy in the brain. Originally, a discovery that creates real hope in the treatment of previously incurable brain tumors. Treatment can be greatly improved, thanks to the opening of the blood-brain barrier.

Experts have developed an ultrasound system that opens these previously waterproof vessels and make chemotherapy easier to penetrate. The molecule directly reaches its goal and it heals better.

It would be a healthy way, without medication and without any harm to the sick, to heal. Initially, the research aimed to find a way to use ultrasound to temporarily open the blood-brain barrier to help dementia-fighting antibodies better reach their target in the brain.

Ultrasound waves oscillate rapidly, activating microglial cells, destroying amyloid plaques that destroy neuron synapses in these cells. This approach activates the memory-repairing mechanism by temporarily opening the blood-brain barrier, clearing toxic protein clumps.

Since these initial observations, the team has decided to work to refine its technique. They have successfully proven that the treatment removes toxic proteins and safely restores memory. Experts suggests that if you are going to have an ultrasound, it is better to know ultrasound price in Delhi first.

When An Ultrasound Of The Urinary System Is Prescribed?

Ultrasound of the urinary system and the adrenal gland is indispensable in the diagnosis of pathological processes, formations, and tumours in the study area.

Ultrasound of the urinary system involves an examination of all organs. Such a diagnosis is prescribed by a urologist, the procedure is carried out by the transabdominal method, which does not pose a threat to health. Ultrasound of the bladder and other organs is considered the most informative method for the diagnosis of various diseases, including stones, cysts, and neoplasms.

ultrasound-urinary-system

Since the procedure is not harmful, it can be prescribed as many times as necessary to monitor the dynamics of therapy. Before having an ultrasound, it is recommended to first know the ultrasound price in Delhi.

Ultrasound of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder should be performed in the following situations:

  • Diagnosis of defects and options for the development and location of these organs;
  • Diagnosis of acute and chronic pathology of the urinary system;
  • Monitoring the dynamics of the disease and evaluating the effectiveness of its treatment;
  • Identification of tumor-like and other volumetric formations of these organs;
  • Assessment of the architectonics and intensity of the vascular pattern of the kidneys;
  • Assessment of blood supply to volume formations;
  • Study of perinephric fiber;
  • Determination of accumulations of pathological fluid in the area of ​​localization of the kidneys;
  • Control before and during the puncture of the kidneys and tumor formations in the study area;
  • Determination of calculi (stones) in the kidneys, bladder, and ureters;
  • To diagnose the causes of dysuric (violation of urination) phenomena;
  • Assessment of the volume of residual urine;
  • Routine inspection (if desired);
  • Dispensary observation for diseases of the urinary system;
  • Urinary tract injury.

WHAT DISEASES ARE DIAGNOSED IN THE STUDY

An ultrasound of the urinary system helps to identify the following diseases:

  • Cystitis;
  • Urolithiasis disease;
  • Tumors of the kidneys and cysts;
  • Kidney carbuncle;
  • Bladder diverticulum;
  • Omission and atypical position of the kidneys, etc.

Ultrasound of the adrenal gland helps to identify tumors and other volumetric processes in them.

STUDY PREPARATION

Ultrasound of the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters is best done on an empty stomach (the last meal should be 6 to 8 hours before the study). Before the study, it is necessary to empty the bladder. In some cases, the doctor, on the contrary, recommends a water load, that is, an ultrasound with a full bladder is performed.

Overweight patients should be prepared for an ultrasound of the urinary system in 2 to 3 days. To reduce gas production, it is recommended to follow a diet (exclude brown bread, dairy products, cabbage and legumes, cereals and jelly) and taking medications that reduce gas formation (espumisan, activated charcoal).

The study of the bladder is carried out only when it is full. For the filling, you need to drink about 1 liter of liquid 1 hour before the study and do not urinate. In the presence of emergency indications, the study of the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters is carried out without preparation. You can know the ultrasound lower abdomen cost by visiting the best clinic of ultrasound.

Ultrasound Of The Heart: Possibilities Of The Method, Features Of The Conduct And Cost Of Diagnosis

Despite the fact that the heart is one of the most studied organs of the human body, and Indian cardiologists are one of the best in the world, in our country, unfortunately, about 1.2 million people die from cardiovascular diseases annually. And one of the main reasons for the high mortality rates, along with the wrong lifestyle, is that Russians are extremely dismissive of the early diagnosis of heart disease.

ultrasound-of-the-heart

No cardiologist can provide qualified assistance to his patient if the diagnosis is too late or inaccurate. In this article, we will talk about ultrasound of the heart, or EchoCG, a study that is among the first among the hardware methods for diagnosing the heart muscle and can detect diseases in the early stages.

Transthoracic echocardiography (EchoCG) is an ultrasound examination of the heart that is highly informative and does not cause patient discomfort. In this examination, the sensor of the device is pressed against the chest - hence the name of the procedure. At the same time, electrodes are fixed on the patient's body, with the help of which an ECG is recorded. Observing the state of the heart and having the results of an ECG, the doctor receives a comprehensive picture of the patient’s heart condition. You should also know the ultrasound test cost in Noida.

At 3hcare, transthoracic echocardiography is performed using the most modern devices. You can get both 2D and 3D images on them, measure blood flow velocity, and thus the examination becomes even more detailed. All this significantly improves the quality of diagnosis and treatment of our patients.

THE PROCEDURE FOR TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

During the examination, the patient lies on his back or on his left side (this position may be preferable for the doctor). In addition to ultrasound, the patient's ECG is simultaneously recorded. If the patient suffers from pulmonary emphysema, obesity, if he has a chest injury, the examination may be difficult and will require more time. However, usually, the doctor manages to find such a position of the sensor, in which he can get an informative picture.

Depending on the indications and condition of the patient, the doctor may use different modes of the sensor, conducting a more or less detailed study. In each case, this is decided individually.

Using ultrasound, you can see the heart in different projections, measure the thickness of the walls, see the position of the heart valves, the volume of the chambers of the heart. During the examination, the doctor receives a general picture of the patient’s condition and can, according to its results, conduct an additional examination. In particular, often patients are referred for transesophageal echocardiography, during which the probe is inserted into the esophagus.

INDICATIONS FOR TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

Transthoracic echocardiography is a general examination that is performed to assess the condition of the heart. The main indications for his appointment are:

  • Heartache
  • Heart murmur
  • Rhythm disturbances
  • Signs of heart failure (e.g., swelling of the legs)
  • Fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, etc.

This examination has no contraindications, however, patients suffering from tachycardia or hypertension should warn the doctor about the diagnosis so that he correctly deciphers the results of echocardiography.

The examination takes approximately 30 minutes. Its results are written to disk or flash media and transferred to the patient. It is suggested to know the ultrasound test price in Noida before having one.

All About Ultrasound To Know In 2020

Everyone knows how important it is to accurately determine the diagnosis before starting treatment, and not to act blindly. Only such an approach can guarantee the effectiveness of treatment. Currently, many methods are used in medicine. Ultrasound diagnostics is one of them, which allows simple and painless to carry out a qualitative and quantitative assessment of data, to study the morphological and functional characteristics of the structure of organs and systems.

ultrasound-in-2020

The modern ultrasound machine and the high professionalism of the staff allow for high-quality diagnosis. In terms of the combination of positive characteristics with ultrasound, it is difficult to compare any other method, since, probably, no one has such a combination of advantages:

Ultrasound test provides reliable information about the position, shape, and size of the internal organs and small pelvis, as well as the fetus.

  • The study is convenient and does not require complicated preparation
  • Ultrasound is publicly available
  • Ultrasound is harmless and safe for the doctor, patient at any age, including those not yet born (located in the womb)
  • The study is painless and not associated with discomfort
  • Low time spent on research. Ultrasound is performed in real-time. This circumstance gives several advantages at once:
  • No time is needed for processing the material, developing and printing any pictures, etc., the result of the study becomes apparent at the end of the study
  • The researcher sees his “picture” in real-time and has the ability to control the image, achieving the best. The ultra-sonographer will not tell the patient: “Come on Wednesday for the result; if it doesn’t work out, let’s repeat

Ultrasound has virtually no contraindications and restrictions on use.

Ultrasound method features:

  • Identification of the disease in the early stages, when there are no complaints, which is extremely important in relation to cancer
  • Clarification of the diagnosis for a more correct appointment
  • The ability to evaluate treatment results.

Is ultrasound harmful to health?

Each patient, coming to the ultrasound diagnostic room, asks himself the question whether this study will harm him. To answer the first part of the question, it is necessary to present the basic principles of the equipment used. Ultrasound is very high-frequency waves that pass through the tissues of the human body, partially reflected from them. The image on the screen appears due to the computer conversion of the ultrasonic signal to electrical. This method is not associated with any harmful effects and has nothing to do with x-rays.

How Often Do I Need To Use The Use?

Even in the absence of significant health problems, it is advisable to undergo a medical examination once a year. After all, any disease detected at an early stage (even cancer) is usually well treated. Several objective tests by ultrasound labs will allow you to obtain objective information about the state of your body: a general blood and urine test, an ultrasound scan, an ECG, an X-ray (or FLG) of the lungs every 1-2 years. Passing these tests will not take much time, but will help to maintain health for many years. Allocate 1-2 days a year for this!

The standard ultrasound screening protocol (performed annually) includes an examination of the following organs: thyroid gland, abdominal organs (liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen), kidneys, and pelvic organs. In the absence of ultrasonic signs of a change in the structure of these organs, there is nothing to worry about.

FAQ About Prostate Ultrasound

When for clinical purposes it is necessary to verify and monitor the health conditions of the prostate gland, it is essential to rely on a prostate ultrasound. This diagnostic test is performed by an ultrasound probe, and allows to identify any changes due to an ongoing disease. The pathological processes, in fact, can alter the size of the gland, but also its shape.

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How to perform prostate ultrasound

To carry out prostate ultrasound scans, an ultrasound probe of appropriate size is needed, bearing in mind that this is an examination that is carried out transrectally. In other words, the probe is inserted into the rectum, and allows images on high-frequency sound waves to be displayed on a connected screen.

The examination itself is not painful, but it is still possible to feel a certain discomfort or a particular discomfort when the probe is introduced into the rectum. The ultrasound scan is based on images that are provided in real time by devices that are equipped with transducers capable of optimizing ultrasound tissue penetration, by virtue of specific frequency ranges of these ultrasounds. At the end of the ultrasound study, the images that have been generated are recorded in digital format so that they can become part of the patient's medical record.

How to prepare for a prostate ultrasound?

Prostate ultrasound test in Delhi, therefore, is a very important exam: also for this reason it is essential that it be carried out by a professional with proven competence. The most suitable specialist to deal with is the medical radiologist. The patient is made to lie down on a bed on one side, usually the right one, and is invited to assume a fetal position, with the knees flexed. Before the probe is inserted, the doctor takes care of performing a rectal exploration with the fingers, also to track down any mechanical impediments that could make the introduction difficult.

How long does a prostate ultrasound last?

It takes at most ten minutes to complete a prostate ultrasound, which also has the merit of guaranteeing an instant report. The only shrewdness required of the patient consists in undergoing, more or less 3 or 4 hours before the examination, an enema, so that during the investigation the rectal ampulla is completely empty. Instead, the bladder must be full: for this reason the patient must not pee before the exam, while he is invited to drink a lot, as long as he avoids fizzy drinks. It should be kept in mind that, with bleeding hemorrhoids or anal fissures, an ultrasound cannot be performed.

Why we need a prostate ultrasound?

With prostate ultrasound test in Delhi it is possible to verify that the gland is in an optimal state of health. The ultrasound scan, therefore, can be carried out as a control test, in normal conditions, or to proceed with assessments made necessary by the finding of specific symptoms, such as a benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostatitis. Sometimes, it may happen that a digito-rectal control exam raises doubts about the condition of the gland, and therefore causes an ultrasound to be requested.

How often should you undergo a prostate ultrasound?

Transrectal prostate ultrasound in elderly men should be considered a routine examination, and should therefore be performed on a regular basis. For young people, however, it is only necessary if there is a concrete suspicion. As we have said, the examination serves to find possible changes in the gland, perhaps early: it is not certain that a normal urological clinical examination will make it possible to verify these alterations, just as one cannot rely solely on the symptomatology, which in most cases of the cases is non-specific, if not absent. Sometimes, the prostate increases in size following an inflammatory prostatitis that may have been caused by drug therapy.

Applications And Need Of Doppler Ultrasound Test

Doppler ultrasound, or simply Eco Doppler, is one of the types of ultrasound that, based on the use of ultrasound, uses the Doppler effect.

In the case of ultrasound, the sound waves leave the ultrasound through the transducer, and bounce off the moving blood, generating different waves depending on the direction and speed of the blood flow. When the blood approaches the ultrasound the frequency will be higher and when it moves away less, this alteration in the ultrasound waves is interpreted by the ultrasound and it assigns a specific colour for each frequency, red, blue and yellow.

Through this method and thanks to this physical principle of sound waves, it is possible to evaluate the flow of vascular structures of any part of the body, being able to determine its existence, its speed and direction of flow.

Why is it important to perform a doppler ultrasound?

The Doppler ultrasound allows to know the amount of blood flow circulating through cavities and veins baby. Its importance is that its results can tell you how much blood is pumped with each beat, thus determining the good state of the baby's heart, in addition to corroborating that the blood is reaching the foetus correctly, and with it the oxygen and the nutrients

But not only important is that sense. Its realization can help detect cardiac malformations in the foetus, problems with the umbilical cord and placenta, so that you and your gynaecologist begin to act quickly, or you can simply rule out these types of problems and make sure that your baby will be born healthy.

When do you have to have a Doppler ultrasound?

This test is usually done to all pregnant women in the third trimester, starting at the 25th week of pregnancy. However, Doppler ultrasound is a non-mandatory quarterly test, which can also be done in the first and second trimesters if the gynecologist considers it necessary.

The cases in which the doctor can recommend you to do this ultrasound are the following:

In case it is suspected that there is a growth delay in the foetus. In this circumstance the doppler ultrasound is very useful to control that the baby receives blood, oxygen and nutrients correctly. In addition, it will also help to know if there are significant blood disorders to anticipate the time of delivery or to predict whether there will be a premature delivery.

If your pregnancy is listed as a risk pregnancy it is recommended that you have an ultrasound of this type in each trimester of pregnancy.

If you suffer from hypertension, what is known as preeclampsia, or you have circulatory problems in the veins. In these cases, if you decide to have this test, you will rule out that your problems are affecting the correct development of the baby.

In the case of heart disease, Doppler ultrasound also works, as you can see if this problem can affect the growth of your baby. This test is performed with the accompaniment of an echocardiogram.

If you plan to go through surgery, Doppler ultrasound is also necessary, since thanks to the study of the flow of the area to be operated you can see if there will be complications a priori.

When To Have Your Prostate Examined?

The ultrasound is a medical imaging technique based on the use of ultrasound, by which we can "see" inside the body. The ultrasound of the prostate, the gland just below the bladder in men and participating in the production of sperm, can be done in two ways:

For suprapubic: externally, by placing the probe above the pubis

By the endorectal route: internally, by introducing the probe into the rectum. Prostate ultrasound test in Delhi by the endorectal approach is more precise and allows to obtain a better image of the prostate. It also makes it possible to evaluate more precisely the volume of the gland as well as its "texture" and that of the accessory glands (seminal vesicles).

There are three major diseases of the prostate:

Prostatitis is an infection of the prostate. This infection occurs most often in young men;

If the prostate becomes too big, this disease is called adenoma of the prostate (adenoma means an abnormality of a gland) or benign prostatic hypertrophy (hypertrophy means excessive volume increase of an organ). In everyday language, men who have problems urinating because their prostate is too big and compresses the urethra say "I have prostate";

Finally, prostate cancer is common, especially after the age of 50. But it is not necessarily serious if it is detected early enough.

Why have an endorectal ultrasound?

Ultrasonography is a painless, non-invasive examination and is therefore first-line when the doctor suspects an abnormality in the prostate.

This can be the case:

After a rectal examination highlighting an abnormality (mass or hypertrophy) of the prostate

In the case of urinary symptoms (frequent urge and emission of a small amount of urine, pain during urination, urinary tract infection, difficulty urinating, etc.)

In the case of dosing showing an abnormal value of PSA (prostate antigen)

To diagnose benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

To guide the doctor when performing a biopsy and to help him visually detect suspicious areas to better target specimens

In addition to biopsies, ultrasonography is mainly used to assess prostatic volume, which tends to increase with age, which can lead to urinary discomfort (benign prostatic hypertrophy).

Examination

Ultrasound involves exposing the tissues or organs that one wishes to observe to ultrasonic waves. It does not require any preparation or anesthesia. For endorectal ultrasound, an elongate (pencil-shaped) probe is used, covered with a condom, and lubricated. It is inserted shallow into the anus, the patient lying on his side, knees bent.

If a biopsy is performed at the same time, the doctor introduces a needle into the prostate, through the wall of the rectum, guided by ultrasound.

What results can be expected from an endorectal ultrasound of the prostate?

Whether it is to perform biopsies or to evaluate prostate volume, prostate ultrasound test in Delhi helps to diagnose prostate conditions, such as cancer (through biopsies) or benign prostatic hypertrophy. The choice of treatment will depend on the diagnosis but also the age of the patient, different risk factors, etc. In the case of hypertrophy of the troublesome prostate, several drugs may be prescribed, including alpha-blockers and phytotherapy products.

Thyroid Cancer And Its Diagnosis

In 2019, as per the American Cancer Society, about 52,070 new cases of thyroid cancer (14,260 in men and 37,810 in women) will be diagnosed in the United States. In addition, about 2170 people will die due to this tumor (1,020 men and 1,150 women). The mortality rate of thyroid cancer has been fairly stable for many years, and it remains very low compared to other cancers.

The increase in the amount of patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer is attributed to an increase in the use of the highest quality diagnostic technology, as well as to the routine use of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration puncture (FNA). There ultrasound test cost in Delhi vary differently.

Many of the thyroid cancers are diagnosed incidentally when a patient undergoes an imaging test (computed tomography, an MRI, a positron emission tomography, or a neck ultrasound) for a reason unrelated to the thyroid. This allows today to identify cases that previously went unnoticed because they are small tumors.

Therefore, early detection of this condition implies the possibility of having more options for its treatment. One of the first tests performed by the specialist to explore the thyroid gland is manual exploration, in order to notice any abnormal mass. This type of exam usually shows a high percentage of packages, although everything depends on the conditions of each person or their complexion.

For example, in patients with obesity problems, it is more difficult to access the gland through palpation. Other times, the nodules are small or more hidden. In these cases, other studies are carried out to identify the nodules.

The most important imaging test used in the neck is high definition ultrasound, both for its accessibility and equipment economy and for its safety, since there is no exposure to any type of radiation. It is a quick and simple system, in addition to one of the most effective to confirm or rule out if a person has thyroid tumours, thanks to its greater accuracy.

Once the nodules have been identified - either because the doctor has noticed a mass on manual palpation or through an ultrasound - the next step is to find out the nature of that lesion. For this, the PAAF is used. This technique is simple, painless, safe, and highly reliable, which usually guides the expert on whether it is a nodule is benign or malignant. The procedure involves pricking the cyst and extracting a sample of cells to analyse them. Before having an ultrasound, it is good to know about the ultrasound test price first.

95% of thyroid tumours are benign, and, however, the diagnosis is sometimes neither easy nor obvious. In fact, there are cases where the malignant features of the cells are not defined. However, specialists generally have a series of guidelines to identify whether or not it is an injury that may affect the patient's health.

In short, it is important to go to the doctor at the slightest indication or suspicion, so that he can do the necessary tests, monitor the nodules or, failing that, start the treatment or removal of the thyroid gland.

What Is The Objective Of Ultrasound?

Ultrasound examination is a method of examining the condition of internal organs and tissues using ultrasonic vibration (waves). Images of the internal sphere of the body are projected on the screen, due to the fact that ultrasound passing through the tissues is reflected different with different vibrational frequencies, which are recorded by the sensor. The method is absolutely safe, not associated with radiation, and is used to recognize the disease while monitoring the dynamics of the process during treatment. Ultrasound for children is good because the examination procedure is completely painless.

Ultrasound at the point of care has the potential to save billions of dollars annually in all health systems. It has the ability to revolutionize patient care and improve the effectiveness of the procedure, reduce complications, and limit pain and suffering. Advances in ultrasound technology have driven the emergence of ultrasound at the point of care, which includes greater ease of use, superior image quality, and lower cost ultrasound units.

What is point of view ultrasound?

Attention point ultrasound refers to the use of portable ultrasound in a patient's bedside for diagnostic (for example, symptom or sign examination) and therapeutic (for example, imaging guide) purposes.

The main barrier to the future universal adoption of this "stethoscope of the future" dependent on the operator. It is the lack of widespread, efficient, and affordable training solutions. The need and demand for ultrasound training have grown in parallel with the expanded use of ultrasound technology.

Ultrasound at the point of care improves health care. While traditional methods of performing a physical examination are critically important, health professionals who become experts in the use of ultrasound at the point of care acquire a unique power. Higher fidelity, lower cost and smaller (handheld) ultrasound units, together with innovative ultrasound training solutions, has created a unique opportunity. Health care providers, facilities, and health systems that strategically incorporate ultrasound at the point of care in clinical practice will quickly be distinguished from those who refrain from incorporating this valuable modality.

How objective is ultrasound?

Ultrasound or sonography over the past two decades has become one of the main diagnostic methods, most often used in the examination of various internal organs. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound is completely safe for the body (ultrasound waves do not have a radioactive effect); therefore, it is used during pregnancy (to monitor fetal development) and other screening examinations.

Ultrasound accuracy

When making a number of diagnoses, it is ultrasound that is the preferred method of examination. It is used in the diagnosis of pathologies of the digestive system, in diseases of the genitourinary system, in obstetrics, for examining the state of superficial organs or glands (thyroid, mammary glands, etc.) by ultrasound labs. In addition to the absence of contraindications, the main advantage of the study is its diagnostic effectiveness. If we compare the results of ultrasound with pathological data, the accuracy of the results in most cases reaches 80%.

Decoding Of The Second Screening Of Ultrasound

In the second trimester, a pregnant woman is assigned a repeated screening, confirming or refuting the data obtained in the first comprehensive study. This period is most suitable for the diagnosis of hormonal levels of the fetus. The data obtained make it possible to assess its development.

If the expectant mother has to wait for a consultation of the attending physician for several days, she will certainly be interested in whether the results of the perinatal screening are normal in advance. It should be remembered that the doctor always judges the pathology only by the totality of the indicators of fetometry, and almost never takes anyone value into account.

Each child is individual even before birth. And if the future mother has really serious reasons for concern, then the ultrasound clinic will inform her about this immediately. Nevertheless, we will talk about the main indicators of the second screening and their normal values.

Body length and fetal weight

At the beginning of the second trimester, the embryo is growing very actively, and it is difficult to judge the standards. On average, the length of the fetus grows from 10 to 16 cm between the sixteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy. It is important to consider not an absolute indicator in centimeters, but an increase in growth by weeks. If the specialist is alert, the pregnant woman will be offered a second study after a week or two.

The fetal weight by ultrasound can only be determined using special formulas so that this value can be very inaccurate depending on the device, the doctor, and the posture of the baby in the womb. Weighing about 300 grams by the 20th week, all the organs of the baby are fully formed, and from 22 weeks or about 450 grams, a prematurely born baby can survive. It seems unbelievable!

The circumference of the abdomen and head

As well as the growth of the child, these important values ​​vary over a wide range and must strictly correspond to the gestational age. There are frequent cases when the “developmental delay” in practice turned out to be an incorrectly diagnosed gestational age. However, the widespread introduction of ultrasound diagnostics in the early stages has reduced the number of such errors.

Biparietal (BPR) and Frontooccipital Foetal head size

It is not surprising that the level 2 ultrasound of pathologies during pregnancy is based on head measurements in 3 projections. It is unlikely that at least one human organ is comparable in complexity and importance to the brain. Deviations from reference values ​​may indicate the formation of severe fetal malformations, such as anencephaly or dropsy of the brain. But as a rule, such diseases are judged by several repeated ultrasounds.

Bone length: lower leg, femur, humerus, and forearm

Some deviation from the norms indicated in the table for the weeks of pregnancy is permissible and can be determined by individual characteristics. The doctor will be warned by a sharp shortening of the entire limb or a different length of arms or legs in one child.

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