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Ultrasound Of The Kidneys In Health And Disease

How the kidneys look on ultrasound is normal and how pathology is determined can be found in this article. Here you will find the basic principles that experienced doctors’ use in their work.

A normal view of the kidneys on ultrasound

A complete ultrasound examination having high ultrasound scan cost of the kidneys includes an assessment of the location, orientation, axis, size, and echogenicity of the parenchyma, the contour, the nature of the centrally located echogenic disk and the lack of visualization of the proximal ureter. Normally, the kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space along with the lumbar muscles and are oriented parallel to their course. They occupy an oblique position, and the upper pole is located dorsal to the lower pole.

The size of the kidney depends on the age; it is measured between the two poles and compared with known nomograms. From the point of view of ultrasound of the kidneys, the most important adjacent organ on the right is the liver, and on the left is the spleen. During the first few months of life, the kidney parenchyma may be iso- or hyperechoic compared with the liver or spleen, and then it becomes hypoechoic.

The cortex can be differentiated from the cerebral bylines, reflecting slight differences in echogenicity. The presence of cortico-medullary differentiation is an indicator of the normal structure of the kidney and the integrity of the parenchyma.

The contour of the kidney in children on ultrasound can be smooth, but often it has a lobed structure. Parenchymal lobules consist of a central pyramid covered with parenchyma of cortical substance and pillars located between the pyramids. With age, the lobed structure disappears, and the contour becomes smooth.

Abnormal development of the kidney on ultrasound

Anomalies or pathology of the kidneys in children can be divided into congenital and acquired, and anatomically- anomalies in the number, localization, vascular, parenchymal and abdominal systems.

One-sided kidney agenesis on ultrasound is often detected. Unilateral agenesis of the kidney is most often determined in children during an ultrasound scan conducted:

  • With urination problems;
  • When screening for related anomalies and
  • About unrelated pathology.

On ultrasound in the renal fossa is not defined as a bean-shaped structure, and it may be located intestines. The surrounding organs are usually not changed. In such cases, it is important to conduct an ultrasound examination of the pelvis to prevent kidney dystopia. In infants, the adrenal glands are visualized in a normal anatomical position.

Kidney dystopia on ultrasonography

The kidneys begin their embryonic development in the large pelvis with the pelvis oriented anteriorly, and then they migrate to the renal fossa and complete the medial rotation by the 6th week of gestation. This process can be interrupted at any stage.

Renal vein thrombosis with an ultrasound scan

Ultrasound done by professional Ultrasound Clinics has a high diagnostic value for suspected renal vein thrombosis. Risk factors include dehydration, birth injury, and sepsis. During the acute phase, marked edema develops, and an ultrasound examines an increase in the kidney with a loss of corticomedullary differentiation. Due to edema at an early stage, the parenchyma looks hypoechoic, but with the progression of fibrosis, it becomes hyperechoic. Thrombi of small vessels look like radiant linear echogenic bands in the parenchyma. Atrophy and calcifications are visualized at a late stage in the thrombus localization zone. When color Doppler on ultrasound, there is a lack of venous blood flow.

Myths And Truth About Prenatal Screening

Prenatal screenings cause a lot of conflicting opinions and feedback. Someone is convinced of their necessity; others are convinced of their complete inexpediency. What kind of research is this, and should all pregnant women really take them? To understand this issue, let's weigh the pros and cons and separate the existing myths from the objective data of scientific medicine.

The argument "against" number 1: ultrasound harm the baby

There is a fairly common opinion that Pregnancy Ultrasound negatively affects the nervous system of a child, annoys him - during the examination, children often try to hide from the apparatus, cover their heads with hands. Therefore, children whose mothers regularly performed ultrasound during pregnancy are more restless than babies whose mothers have refused ultrasound diagnosis. Is it really?

According to doctors, ultrasound cannot cause the baby absolutely no harm - modern equipment is absolutely safe. Therefore, official medicine insists that absolutely all pregnant women should undergo an ultrasound. Indeed, the timely diagnosis allows, firstly, to see the full picture of the course of pregnancy, and secondly, if necessary, to correct certain problems.

Especially important are the data obtained on ultrasound of the first prenatal screening (at 11-13 weeks of pregnancy). During this period during the study:

  • The number of embryos in the uterus and their viability are determined;
  • Put a more accurate period of pregnancy;
  • Gross defects are excluded;
  • Determines the thickness of the collar space - (that is, the amount of subcutaneous fluid on the back of the child's            neck is measured - in normal TVP should not exceed 2.7 mm);
  • The presence or absence of the nasal bone is investigated.

The argument "against" No. 2: a biochemical blood test gives an unreliable result

Many mothers are sure that it is impossible to make at least some reliable conclusions on one analysis- too many factors can affect the result. And, in part, they are really right. However, it is necessary to study the analysis process more closely in order to understand on what basis the doctor makes a conclusion. The second screening takes place at 18-21 weeks of pregnancy. This study includes a "triple" or "quadruple test. "Everything happens the same way as in the first trimester- the woman again takes a blood test. Only in this case, the results of the analysis are used to determine not two, but three (or, respectively, four) indicators.

The argument "against" No. 3: "I have good heredity- I do not need screenings."

Some mothers do not see the point of going through screenings - all relatives are healthy, what problems could there be? Indeed, there are certain groups of women who are primarily recommended to undergo Pregnancy Ultrasound to identify possible pathologies in the development of a child. These are women over 35–40 years old (since after this age, the risk of developing abnormalities in a child increases several times) and expectant mothers with certain diseases (for example, diabetes).

Frequently Asked Questions about Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound is an imaging study that uses ultrasound to evaluate the internal organs of the abdomen, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.

It can also evaluate vascular structures of the abdomen, as well as structures of the lymphatic system.

An ultrasound is used, which is used through a transducer the emission and reception of high-frequency sound waves. This transducer moves through the skin of the patient, and above the organ that interests to study, generating images of organs and structures within the abdomen. The same ultrasound through the transducer receives these waves and creates an image of the organ under study.

Each organ or tissue returns as a sound echo the waves that by its own structure generates given the density of the tissue to which it is formed, for example, the waves that emit bone, fluids or adipose tissue will be different.

How is an abdominal ultrasound done?

It is an ultrasound done lying down, and a transparent water-based conductive gel is applied to the skin on the abdomen that serves as a means for the transmission of ultrasound.

The doctor may need to change the position while performing the study, to examine different areas of the abdomen; you may also be asked to hold your breath for short periods during the study.

This ultrasound can be requested to investigate the cause of abdominal pain, kidney infections, diagnose tumors or ascites, and evaluate the presence of lithiasis in the gallbladder or kidney, among other possible causes for the study.

What is the preparation for an abdominal ultrasound?

The person is required to fast for at least 8 hours, to facilitate the observation of all the organs to be evaluated.

Does abdominal ultrasound generate any discomfort?

It is a study done by Ultrasound Labs that generates little or no discomfort. The conductive gel can feel a bit cold and damp. It is a rapid study in general and that the patient tolerates very well.

How long is an abdominal ultrasound?

Approximately an abdominal ultrasound study lasts about 30 minutes.

Are there risks to perform the abdominal ultrasound study?

There are no risks to perform it, since it is not exposed to ionizing radiation and neither is it an invasive study.

In an abdominal ultrasound, Doppler can also be used to increase the evaluation of the organs under study, through the study of its vascularization. In the course of Doppler, you can hear sounds similar to the pulse of an artery.

After the study, the patient can resume their activities in a normal and daily manner.

One of the benefits is low whole abdomen ultrasound price, its availability, and it does not use ionizing radiation.

An image is generated in real time, being a tool that eventually serves as a guide for minimally invasive procedures such as aspiration biopsies, and fine needle aspirations for drainage of liquids in the abdomen.

It has limitations for the study of hollow organs, that is, the intestine and the stomach mainly, since the air or gas contained in these organs reflects the ultrasound beam and prevents the formation of a clear image of the organ.

Diagnosing the Health Issues in Your Child

How can parents prevent and treat these conditions to give their children a healthy and happy adult life?

Congenital heart diseases are problems in the structure and functioning of the heart due to the abnormal development of the heart before birth. It is the most common congenital anomaly, and its presentation and treatment will depend on the type of malformation that is since there are several types.

The majority of congenital heart diseases are presented as an isolated defect without association with other diseases. They can also be part of various genetic and chromosomal syndromes, such as Down syndrome. And although congenital heart disease is present at birth, it may not be visible immediately or cause problems for years.

Although for most congenital disabilities a known cause cannot be identified, it is known that the consumption of alcohol and some chemical substances during pregnancy, and certain infections such as rubella, can contribute to its development. It is also important to control the level of blood sugar especially in pregnant women with diabetes and perform periodic ultrasounds to detect any problems.

Early prevention, the key

The first preventive measure is fetal cardiac ultrasound when the child is still in the uterus. However, the condition can be detected only years later, when the child is in early childhood, so periodic checks are essential. Besides, there are two other forms of diagnosis: puncture and nuchal translucency. Any of these types of studies must be done after week 20.

With early detection and adequate treatment, the child can be provided with quality and normal life expectancy, something that for years was unthinkable due to the lack of information and technology.

In general terms, the treatments will depend on the type of heart disease that is suffered. The milder ones disappear alone over the years, other more serious require medication and in the most complex one or several surgical procedures will be required.

Diagnostic tests

If the results of level 1 ultrasound are abnormal, doctors usually use diagnostic tests to determine if the baby has congenital disabilities or other possible problems. These tests are also offered to women with high-risk pregnancies, such as women aged 35 or older, women who have had their previous pregnancy affected by birth defects, women with chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, lupus, diabetes or epilepsy, and women who use certain medications.

High-resolution ultrasound

The ultrasound creates images of the baby. This ultrasound, also called second-level ultrasound, is used to look more closely at possible birth defects or other problems that have been indicated in the results of previous screening tests. It is usually done between weeks 18 and 22 of pregnancy.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

In the chorionic villus test (CVS), the doctors of Ultrasound Clinic removes a small sample of the placental tissue, called chorionic villus, to analyze and determine if the baby has chromosomal or genetic alterations. In general, CVS is offered to women who have received an abnormal result on a first-trimester screening test or who may be at higher risk. This test is done between weeks 10 and 12 of pregnancy, before amniocentesis.

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is an examination in which the doctor removes a small amount of amniotic fluid from the area surrounding the baby. The fluid is tested to understand the baby's protein levels, which can indicate certain birth defects. Amniotic fluid cells can be analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and genetic problems, such as cystic fibrosis.

Is there Any Difference Between 3D Ultrasound and 4D Ultrasound?

Many people wonder what the difference between 3D ultrasound and 4D ultrasounds is! Initially, these techniques based on ultrasound were limited to 2D. Technological advances now allow exploration 3 and 4d. A 3D ultrasound is a scanner that produces a three-dimensional image similar to a photograph, rather than a cross-sectional image obtained in a 2D scan. A 4D scanner is the term of the technique used. A 4D scan means that instead of just getting an image, you get a video. In a 4D scan, the actions of the fetus are visible in real time. In simple terms, a 3D ultrasound is an image, and 4D ultrasounds are videos showing movement.

Is it safe for mother and baby?

The biological effects and the safety of ultrasound techniques have received considerable attention in recent years. Several research articles, textbooks, and institutional documents have been published. The American Institute of Medicine in Ultrasound (AIUM) has stated that significant biological effects have not been independently recorded. Also, no risk has been identified with the use of ultrasound diagnostics in humans.

Do I have to see a doctor before the visit?

Yes of course. You are required to visit a Ultrasound Lab and a medical diagnostic ultrasound of your fetus before visiting the ultrasound center.

What is the best time to have a 4D/3D ultrasound?

It is recommended that you do your 4D/3D ultrasound after 16 weeks. From 16 to 20 weeks is the best time to see the whole body, but the face will not be fully formed. From week 24 the baby's face will be more developed, but it is not easy that the whole body cannot be observed. We will see the different parts of the body in separate sections.

What can I do to maximize my chances of having a clear picture?

The clarity and quality of the images of 4D ultrasounds depend both on the sonographer and on several factors that are beyond the control. These factors include, but are not limited to a percentage of body fat of the pregnant mother, position of the fetus, age, position of the placenta, etc.

To maximize the chances of obtaining good images in 4D the pregnant mother can do three simple things: (1) hydrate, taking infusions during pregnancy, fruit or drinking more (at least three days before your appointment), (2) getting a good night's rest before your appointment, and (3) eating something sweet 10 to 20 minutes before your appointment. Although these things are not going to guarantee a good ultrasound session, the possibilities will increase. Always check with your doctor before taking any of these assessments.

The 4D ultrasound in Delhi are increasingly popular, to the point that most pregnant women get a raise to try to know what their baby before seeing it in person. Anyway, we must also recognize that a large number of couples still do not know what this new technology can offer unique and consider whether the differences between a 3D/4D echo are significant enough to decide to do it.

Kidney Ultrasound and its Aim

Patients suffering from renal colic without a history of kidney stones usually undergo non-contrast computed tomography. This technique does not require preliminary preparation of the patient, and it does not depend on the operator or the patient. Its main disadvantages are the high cost and use of ionizing radiation. Patients with a history of kidney stones require a conventional X-ray and Doppler ultrasound of kidney.

These are usually the first diagnostic tests that are performed. Also, in many areas of India, computed tomography is not generally available, and ultrasonography of the kidneys can be quickly and significantly assisted in diagnosing the patient. In addition to diagnosing obstructive uropathy, ultrasound can evaluate the condition of other abdominal organs with concomitant diseases.

Ultrasound Test scanning of the kidney can demonstrate the acoustic properties of its tissue, determine the pathological displacement of the organ as a result of the extra-renal mass, or determine whether hydronephrosis is secondary to the kidney stones. Also, ultrasound can detect a circadian fluid buildup such as a hematoma or abscess, determine the size of the kidneys and assess its parenchyma in detail, detect enlarged ureters and hydronephrosis, and identify kidney images with congenital anomalies.

The kidney is displayed on the ultrasound as an organ with a smooth outer contour, surrounded by a reflected thin stripe of the kidney fat. The renal parenchyma surrounds a large central renal sinus, which contains calyxes, pelvis, papillae, vessels, and lymphatic vessels. Because of the fat layer, the tissue of the renal sinus is depicted as an area of great echoing by a weaker variable contour. If two separate collection systems of the renal sinus are seen separated by a fatty layer, then doubling of the collective operation of the kidney by ultrasound should be suspected.

If the patient has a significant amount of perineum fat, the high-frequency sensor cannot provide penetration to the required depth to optimally visualize the kidney area on ultrasound. Thicker regions of the kidneys can appear in the form of hypoechoic structures. A detailed study of the ultrasound test price in Delhi can also be entirely or partially closed if the patient has the hepatocellular disease, gallstone disease, had chest and abdominal interventions, or there are adhesions between the liver and the kidneys. The use of the second harmonic visualization and tissue contrast technology, which is actively used, can help optimize the visualization of the organs.

The criteria for type I change on renal ultrasound include the following:

  • The intensity of the echostructure in the cortex should be equal to or higher than in the neighboring liver or spleen;
  • The power of the echostructure in the cortex should be similar to the adjacent renal sinus.

Minor signs include loss of identifiable arched vessels and a certain accentuation of the echo-structure on the cortico-medullary layer.

Type II - changes can show ultrasound evident focal disturbances of normal anatomy with any volume lesion, including cysts, tumors, abscesses, and hematomas.

5 Things You Must Check Before Going To An Ultrasound Clinic For Examination

Ultrasound is also known as ultrasonography which is a medical examination to get images of the inner parts of your body with the help of high-frequency sound wave. It is done to find out the cause of various diseases or to check whether the current treatment procedure is doing well on that particular part. Your doctor can advise you to go for a USG scan to diagnose different types of disease. At the same time, this examination process is also used to check the condition of the fetus

However, before you follow the instructions of your doctor and go for an ultrasound test, you should check these five points in an ultrasound clinic to be sure that you will get a good service.

The Reputation Of The Clinic

A reputed diagnostic clinic can offer you the best service under any circumstances. They have earned that reputation because of their efficient and dedicated services for several years in the market. People trust their name because they know that these organizations will always offer accurate and genuine reports. You must consider visiting a recognized and experienced diagnostic center for your USG.

The Ultrasound Scanners & Other Equipment

As a patient, we are usually not aware about the ultrasound scanners the labs are using, in terms of latest technology as accuracy of results depends on the quality of scanners to scan each and every action while doing the process. A well-maintained, hygienic and advanced clinic must have some latest instrument and machines through which the tests are performed. Diagnostic centers with latest scanners provides the best results for Ultrasound tests.

The Experts

Ensure that the clinic has some of the expert radiologists in their department of ultrasound. These experts must have proper degrees, experience, and dedication towards their job. They must be certified professionals who can handle such tests well. Many times, it depends on the radiologist that how accurately the images will be studied and prepared. They play an essential role in assisting the doctors to diagnose the real cause of the disease.

The Cost

It is necessary to check the cost of this service. Know the average ultrasound test price in Delhi from various diagnostic centers. Now decide which one will be the most affordable option for you. Log on to www.3hcare.in to get the list of diagnostic labs near by your area with their cost for ultrasound test to compare at your end.

The Location

Though it may not be a big issue for those who have their own cars, you should check the location of the diagnostic center or the ultrasound clinic before you book the test. Ensure that you do not need to travel a long path because you have some health issues. Find the diagnostic lab near to your home or office which is easy to access for you.

At 3H Care, you can find out the list of diagnostic centers where ultrasound test is done with care. You can get discounts on this test through 3H Care too.

A Complete Guide On Ultrasound: Procedure, Preparation And Purpose

Ultrasound is a term that we come across everyday and we’ve seen people around us getting this test done. But what ultrasound really is? For those who are still living under the rock, ultrasound is a type of medical test that brings to use high frequency sound waves in order to capture live images of the inside of your body. Also popularly referred as Sonography, today ultrasound is one of the most widely used imaging techniques by doctors all over the world to identify problems inside the human body. What differentiates ultrasound from all the other imaging techniques is that it does not use any kind of radiation. Here in this blog we will look deeply into the purpose, procedure and preparation of ultrasound scan.

Purpose of Ultrasound

Most of the people associate the term ultrasound with pregnancy but the medical test has many purposes beyond it. Yes, ultrasound is most commonly used in scanning the stomach of a mother to be. The medical test provides the mother with the first view of her unborn child. Apart from pregnancy, ultrasound has also a wide variety of other purposes such as detecting problems in kidney, liver, eyes, bladder, brain and other vital body parts. Also the medical technique is very helpful in guiding the surgeon’s movement in complex medical procedures such as biopsies.

How to Prepare yourself for an Ultrasound Test

There is no predefined preparation for the ultrasound test but it all depends upon the body part or organ that has to be tested. In cases when the abdomen of the patient is to be examined the doctor will tell you to fast before eight hours. In other cases such as liver, gall bladder or pancreas the doctor may tell you to keep away from fat free food. For distinct cases there are different types of do’s and don’ts that doctors often advise patients. Before an ultrasound test you should inform the doctor about any medications or drugs that you have been prescribed. Be open to your doctor and follow his instructions carefully in order to avoid any kind of inconvenience later on. Although there are no side effects of an ultrasound tests but you need to adhere to the precautions briefed by your doctor.

How the Ultrasound is Actually Conducted

The ultrasound test is basically done lying down with the part meant to be tested left exposed. An ultrasound professional is called a sonographer and has deep knowledge about the imaging technique. When you visit an ultrasound clinic the sonographer applies some special kind of lubricant jelly to your body skin. The main motive behind it is to create friction so that the ultrasound transducer can be rubbed easily on the skin and moreover it also helps in transmitting the sound waves. The transducer then sends high frequency sounds, the waves then echo and reflect back once they hit any dense object such as a bone or any organ. This forms an image on the computer that can be interpreted by a doctor. The process usually doesn't take much time to complete but the time may vary depending on the complexity and on which part of the body is being examined.

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