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The Fuss And Debate Over Prenatal Screening

Prenatal screening and its utility or importance has got polarized opinions. While some feel it is the need of the hour, the other group is convinced of their complete inexpediency. Therefore we really need to look at the pros and cons that prenatal screening has on offer for pregnant women.

prenatal screening

The doctors opine that prenatal screening in an ultrasound has no harmful effects and that the use of the latest and advanced equipment to conduct this test makes the test even more fail-safe. The various aspects which can be looked over with the help of ultrasound are:

  • The number of embryos in the uterus and their viability are determined;
  • Put a more accurate period of pregnancy;
  • Gross defects are excluded;
  • Determines the thickness of the collar space - (that is, the amount of subcutaneous fluid on the back of the child's neck is measured - in normal TVP should not exceed 2.7 mm);
  • The presence or absence of the nasal bone is investigated.

However, there are quite a few arguments which make prenatal screening questionable to many. Many mothers are sure that it is impossible to make at least some reliable conclusions on one analysis- too many factors can affect the result. And, in part, they are really right. However, it is necessary to study the analysis process more closely in order to understand on what basis the doctor makes a conclusion. The second screening takes place at 18-21 weeks of pregnancy. This study includes a "triple" or "quadruple test”. The test follows the same step as in the first trimester- the woman again takes a blood test. Only in this case, the results of the analysis are used to determine not two, but three (or, respectively, four) indicators.

Some mothers point out strong heredity and don’t see a reason to go for ultrasound. There is a mindset which governs their judgement; all relatives are healthy, what problems could there be? Indeed, there are certain groups of women who are primarily recommended to undergo Pregnancy Ultrasound to identify possible pathologies in the development of a child. These are women over 35–40 years old (since after this age, the risk of developing abnormalities in a child increases several times) and expectant mothers with certain diseases (for example, diabetes). For getting a more clear view on the Pregnancy Ultrasound, get in touch with the diagnostic labs in delhi which can also guide you on the process to be followed for this test.

All About Ankle Ultrasound In Case Of Sprain

3D ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging process that uses high-frequency waves to examine injured areas within the body. Although the most frequent use of pregnancy Ultrasound is to observe the development of fetuses in pregnant women, they can also be used to see organs and bones, as in the case of the ankle.

ankle-ultrasound

Contrary to traditional radiographs, ultrasound scans do not require radiation, so patients are not subject to the risks of these tests.

What can be seen on an ankle ultrasound?

Ankle ultrasounds allow doctors a more comprehensive and real-time evaluation of the injured foot. Thanks to 4D ultrasound in Delhi, as it enables you to examine all the anatomical divisions of the ankle, such as the tendons, nerves, bones and ligaments, the most common being the nerves, tendons and ligaments.

What is an ankle ultrasound for?

Let's put yourself in a situation: playing soccer with friends, you twisted your ankle abnormally, and now you feel a sharp pain when you bear weight on that foot. Your ankle may even be swollen or you may have instability when resting on your foot. These are just a few symptoms of an ankle sprain.

Ankle disorders are a relatively common pathology, especially in the world of sports and, although there are numerous methods to examine injuries in this area, such as computed tomography (CT) or MRI Test; ultrasound test is the one that offers the most benefits, especially for the evaluation of tendons, ankle nerves and ligaments.

Types of ankle injuries requiring ultrasound

Ankle ultrasound is particularly useful for evaluating sprains, ankle tendinitis, tears, dislocations or subluxations since it allows you to provide a real-time analysis of the lesion, with the advantage of avoiding exposure to X-rays, which it is highly beneficial for pregnant women and children.

What is the protocol to perform an ankle ultrasound?

If you do not know how to prepare for an ankle ultrasound or if you are nervous about what might happen, don't worry, ankle ultrasounds are a non-invasive protocol that does not require prior preparation.

The doctor at diagnostic labs in Delhi will put on a water-based gel that improves ultrasound wave transmission and gently move the transducer along the foot and ankle with moderate pressure. You may be asked to change your posture to fully analyze the structure of the foot. Visit reputed ultrasound lab and ask for 3d ultrasound cost in Delhi before undergoing any radiological test.

Can you walk with a sprained ankle?

Ankle sprains can be classified into three grades, with grade I being the lowest and grade III being the highest. In the first case, doctors recommend resting, taking non-coagulant anti-inflammatories, applying ice to the injured foot to reduce swelling, and sleeping with a pillow or cushion raising the foot above the heart. Once the inflammation has subsided, you can always walk again wearing comfortable shoes and gradually resuming stronger physical activities, as long as you do not feel discomfort.

If the pain persists or if you have trouble walking, see your doctor. If your injury is grade II, you may need to immobilize the joint with a cast or splint, while if you have a grade III sprain, you may need surgery.

Contribution of ultrasound in ankle examination in case of sprain

There are numerous imaging tests to treat ankle disorders, whether traumatic, inflammatory, infectious, or degenerative. Joint ultrasound of the foot is the first-line technique that helps to detect dislocations of the tendons, ligaments and nerves.

It is important to be able to detect ankle injuries in time to prevent them from degenerating or leading to a more serious problem and, therefore, more difficult to treat.

Is 4D Ultrasound Safe During Pregnancy?

The ultrasound used for the baby's controls during pregnancy works with sound waves. Thanks to these waves, a general view of the baby in the womb is obtained. This image controls the other elements, such as amniotic fluid, which are important for the development and development of the baby. All these checks are extremely important to ensure a smooth delivery. Although Pregnancy Ultrasound has been used for a long time, it has been continuously improved over the past time. One of the latest options offered by the technology is a device called 4-dimensional color ultrasound (4D) and as it can be understood from its name, it provides a realistic view of the image of the babies.

3d-and-4d-ultrasound

When to Take a 4-Dimensional Ultrasound?

Ultrasound is not normally a standard test. In other words, it is not compulsory to examine the fetus with ultrasound in every routine control.

Families often demand the removal of level 1 ultrasound. They want to see a clearer view of their babies, especially in the last months of pregnancy. So, they can understand who their babies look like, see how they yawn and smile. This gives families happiness.

Sometimes there may be a request by doctors to take color dopler test in pregnancy. The reason why doctors want this is to make sure the health of the baby, to see the possible problems in advance and to start the necessary treatments as soon as possible.

Is 4-Dimensional Ultrasound Useful?

Ultrasound can be expressed as a device that acquires images with sound waves. Therefore, it does not constitute any risk to the health of the mother and baby. 4-dimensional ultrasound, known to be harmless, has very important benefits. Baby control is at the top of these. With 3D ultrasound, the development of the fetus (baby), birth defects and amniotic fluid are examined.

As more detailed images are obtained with 4-dimensional ultrasound, the baby is examined in more detail. Therefore, examination of a specific condition, spinal cord problems, half-lips and similar fetal anomalies can be examined with 4D ultrasound.

The benefits provided by 4D ultrasound are not limited to the above. Apart from this, some benefits can be listed as follows:

  • Sex of the baby is determined earlier than the position
  • Detection of anomalies occurring in the placenta
  • Determination of placental location
  • Investigation of the causes of abnormal bleeding
  • uterine fibroids, polyps and tumor formations such as the detection of non-natural
  • Detailed examination of the baby's development
  • Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy too early
  • Detailed examination of the condition of babies in multiple pregnancies
  • Determination of structural problems in the uterus

ultrasound-in-pregnancy

Is 4-Dimensional Ultrasound Harmful?

As mentioned earlier, ultrasound is a device that acquires images with sound waves. Therefore, it is different from X-ray, MRI and similar imaging devices. These devices, which are reported to be completely harmless by experts, are not included in routine tests. Therefore, it usually depends on the demand and abnormal situations.

When to Take a 4-Dimensional Ultrasound?

It can be said that the operating system of 4-dimensional ultrasound test is relatively different from other ultrasounds. Therefore, it may not be possible to use this device at any time. It is very important that the baby's fluid is sufficient in order to obtain a clear image. This means that it can be used at 11-14 weeks at the earliest. It can be performed in addition to the routine checks performed especially at 11-13 and 18-22 weeks.

Things to Know About 4-Dimensional Ultrasound

4D ultrasounds can be expressed as the most advanced ultrasound devices. However, this does not mean that 4-dimensional devices will be completely sufficient. Because in 4-dimensional imaging, the general appearance of the baby can be seen in detail and in color. However, these devices remain inadequate after examining the internal organs. At this point, level 2 ultrasound imaging should be done again.

Myths And Realities Of Ultrasound, In Pregnancy

First of all, it is very important to understand the way an ultrasound device works.

The ultrasound uses sound waves, which penetrate the tissues of the body, by placing the transducer accompanied by gel as a conductive medium and in this way the sound waves that bounce off the different organs are processed by the ultrasound devices in two-dimensional images.

ultrasound-in-pregnancy

These images will give the doctor information about the size, shape, and texture of the body part, also in the case of pregnancy determine the condition of the baby, listen to his heart, see his movements and if possible observe the sex.

The images are interpreted by radiologists and sonographers, who will inform the patient about the different findings and make the study diagnosis.

An ultrasound scan usually takes 25-30 minutes, but it may take a little longer.

Many people say that ultrasound can cause diseases in the baby, that you don't have to do many because they hurt you and this causes fear and insecurity in your breast. However, Pregnancy Ultrasound can give you and your doctor valuable information about the status of your baby and its correct development.

Since we understood how ultrasound equipment works let's get into the subject of myths and realities.

- MYTH THE ULTRASOUND CAN DAMAGE THE BABY.

* REALITY ultrasound in a simple innocuous and painless technique. It does not involve radiation or exposure, for which it is safe for both the breast and the baby.

-MYTH: NO MORE THAN THREE ULTRASOUNDS MUST BE MADE.

* REALITY: It really depends a lot on the indication of your doctor, and it would have no risk to perform more ultrasounds, you have to keep in mind that the baby's development is constant and that there are risks and complications; such as multiple pregnancies, hypertension (high pressure in the mother), stunted baby growth, gestational diabetes, and bleeding.

- MYTH: THE ULTRASOUND OF THE FIRST QUARTER MUST BE TRANSVAGINAL.

* FACT: Although it is the favourite method by radiologists and sonographers before 12 weeks of pregnancy because it allows a sharper image, abdominal ultrasound can be done without any problem and as an example is the image taken in a baby of only 10 weeks of life.

- MYTH: 4D ULTRASOUND IS BETTER THAN NORMAL (2D).

* REALITY: this is false, most of the diagnoses that are made by ultrasound are made by means of 2D ultrasound or normal call, however, 4d ultrasound in Delhi allows us to see in three dimensions and in addition to the movements in real-time to babies, which allows us to see your body and face.

- MYTH: 4D ULTRASOUND CAN ONLY BE DONE AT THE END OF PREGNANCY.

* FACT: Ultrasound of this type is recommended between weeks 26 and 30 because the baby has the size to assess small details such as the mouth, nose, and fingers are his hands, but if they can be done when the babies are small.

- MYTH: THE ECOGRAPHY DETECTS THE BABY'S ANOMALIES.

* REALITY: true, although only in one part. Ultrasound is a diagnostic tool dependent on the ability and knowledge that the doctor has when conducting the study, this being very important, as well as the quality and resolution of the ultrasound equipment. There are studies that show that the ability to detect anomalies at close to 75%, which means that almost one in every 4 anomalies could go unnoticed.

Common Queries About Ultrasound

Here is a list of most common questions one should want to ask before undergoing an ultrasound test:

1- Can ultrasound harm the baby?

Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves that help us generate medical images; As such, sound waves interact with the tissue producing movements at the cellular level and this is how they travel through the body. The ultrasound as such is harmless and does not generate any type of ionizing radiation as with x-rays or tomography.

ultrasound-question

2- Can perform many ultrasounds during pregnancy cause reflux?

There is nothing that relates to reflux to ultrasound. Reflux is related to the maturation of the gastroesophageal system, specifically with the proper functioning of the oesophageal sphincter that connects the oesophagus with the stomach. This sphincter or valve prevents gastric juices from returning to the oesophagus, which is not prepared to withstand the acidity of gastric juices.

This situation of "returning milk" It is relatively common and should stop happening one year after the baby's life; In any case, it is always advisable to visit the doctor to rule out that these types of conditions respond to something else.

3- Do ultrasound use radiation?

No, ultrasound does not use any type of radiation. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound that is inaudible to humans. Humans listen in an acoustic frequency range of 20 to 20,000 Hertz. The ultrasound uses above 1 Megahertz that is 1,000,000 Hertz. The sound frequency above 1 Megahertz is not audible to humans or to most animals.

4- How long do the results of an ultrasound take?

This depends on the doctor doing the study. There is no rule about it. There are doctors who generate the report immediately after doing the study; or doctors who prefer to wait and make the report later to analyse the study in much more detail.

5- Do 3-D ultrasound use stronger waves than 2-D ultrasound?

No, it's the same ultrasound, just change the way the transducer works. The 3D / 4D transducer is essentially the same as that of 2D but is connected to a motor that moves it to be able to make volumetric acquisitions. Everything else is image processing in ultrasound equipment.

It is said easy but in reality, it requires a high processing capacity of the equipment to obtain good quality 3D or 4D images. It should be remembered that 3D or 4D not only serves to see the face of the BB, currently, volumetry is an advanced diagnostic tool for medical specialists, which allows them to assess in more detail the brain, heart, abdomen, limbs, and evaluation of blood flows, especially if a pathology is suspected.

7- With a 3D ultrasound is the prediction of the baby's sex easier and safer?

Not really, 3D ultrasound helps patients understand sex more easily. Volumetric ultrasound always depends on the foetus and its position.

8- Can a vaginal ultrasound harm the baby or hurt the mother?

No, pregnancy ultrasound does not harm the baby or the mother. The resolution of this application is advisable to make timely diagnoses during the first trimester, which will always be higher than the suprapubic ultrasound.

3d And 4d Ultrasound During Pregnancy

3D -4D- the study of the fetus is an additional research method, which is carried out only simultaneously with an ultrasound of the fetus at different stages of pregnancy!

THE PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL AND FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND OF THE FETUS

Ultrasound of the fetus in 3D and 4D modes can be performed at any time during pregnancy.

If a specialist in ultrasound diagnostics during the ultrasound of the fetus suspects any deviations in its development, then it is imperative to conduct such an additional construction of a three-dimensional image of one or another part of the fetus of interest.

At the request of future parents, the doctor can build an image of the embryo or the face of the fetus in 3D-4D modes.

Future parents need to know that the most favorable time for successful research in 3D-4D modes is 17-18 weeks, i.e. II trimester (13-24 weeks). Success in building a three-dimensional (four-dimensional) image of the fetus depends on the amount of amniotic fluid and the position of the fetus. In the II trimester, the fetus has not yet reached its maximum size, as in the III trimester; the amount of amniotic fluid is enough to build an image.

Amniotic fluid is the acoustic window for successful imaging, and the desired position of the fetus allows you to get the most complete picture. Not always during the entire study, the fetus takes the right position to build a three-dimensional (four-dimensional) image. In this case, during the next screening, you can try to build the image in 3D-4D modes.

An expert study includes an ultrasound during pregnancy of the appropriate period, in the third trimester with the mandatory Doppler study (blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus system) with the creation of a 3D image of the fetus in 3D and 4d ultrasound test.

Ultrasound findings include:

Ultrasound diagnosis,

Images of the fetus and a disc with the recording of images and mini-video clips that the expectant mother receives on the day the ultrasound is performed.

FEATURES OF 3D AND 4D ULTRASOUND OF THE FETUS

Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound of the fetus is one of the latest ultrasound diagnostic methods that have emerged using modern computer technology. These studies have expanded the possibilities of an objective assessment of the intrauterine development of the fetus and allow it to obtain a three-dimensional image of the baby on the screen of an ultrasound scanner.

For example, with the usual two-dimensional ultrasound, only a specialist can evaluate the “picture” on the monitor screen, while three-dimensional ultrasound allows parents to see the real “photo” of the baby for the first time.

A four-dimensional study is different in that in addition to the volumetric image acquisition of the child (height, width, and depth of the picture), fetal movements can be seen in real-time. That is, a fourth dimension is added to 3D ultrasound - time, which allows you to observe the intrauterine life of your baby.

Recommended dates

An obligatory screening ultrasound examination during pregnancy is carried out three times: at 11 - 14, 18 - 24 and 32 - 36 weeks. An additional study is prescribed if there is evidence and if there are suspicions of possible abnormalities in the development of the fetus and placenta, amniotic fluid pathology and pregnancy. 3d ultrasound and four-dimensional ultrasound is recommended at 17-18 weeks.

Ultrasound Diagnosis Of Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy

The term "ectopic pregnancy" or "extrauterine" is defined as the pathological condition in which the implantation of the fertilized egg takes place in locations other than the uterine cavity. The recognition by pregnancy ultrasound and early treatment of this condition can help preserve the possibility of future pregnancies.

ectopic-pregnancy

What is ectopic pregnancy?

When the nesting takes place outside the uterus we talk about an extrauterine pregnancy (tubal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, abdominal pregnancy); instead, "ectopic intrauterine pregnancy" is defined when the implantation takes place inside the uterus but in an improper place, as in the case of the implant in the cervical canal (cervical pregnancy) or at the level of the tubal ostium (corneal pregnancy).

What are the causes of ectopic pregnancy?

Tubar pregnancies - the most common type of ectopic pregnancy, equal to about 95% of the total - take place when

The descent of the fertilized egg towards the uterus is delayed or deviated (due to anatomical lesions, inflammatory lesions, congenital tubal alterations, endometriosis or alterations of the pelvic anatomy due to previous surgical operations).

The development of the fertilized egg is accelerated so that it reaches the degree of maturity necessary for the implant when it is still in the tuba.

The underlying causes of other forms of extrauterine pregnancy can mostly be traced to the same factors as tubal pregnancy. Sometimes the cause is unknown.

What are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?

If the pregnancy is initial (4 ^ -6 ^ week), the patient is often asymptomatic. The suspicion of the presence of an ectopic pregnancy is therefore given by the presence of a positive pregnancy test without the visualization of the gestational chamber inside the uterine cavity. Blood losses are almost constantly present in cases of ectopic pregnancy. In cases of more advanced pregnancy, which involves the progressive erosion of the tube up to the rupture, to vaginal bleeding, it is accompanied by important pelvic and / or abdominal pain. In the most serious cases, that is when the tuba breaks, the consistent blood loss in the abdomen (hemoperitoneum) can lead to dizziness and fainting up to a real state of shock.

How to prevent ectopic pregnancy?

An ectopic pregnancy cannot be prevented, but some risk factors can be reduced. Among the virtuous behaviors that it is good to adopt, limit the number of sexual partners and use condoms during sexual intercourse, in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections and reduce the risk of developing conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease.

The ultrasound test of suspected ectopic pregnancy is essentially carried out by:

Analysis of the blood value and changes of the HCG hormone (pregnancy hormone).

Transvaginal and trans-abdominal ultrasonography, which make it possible to exclude the presence of a gestational chamber in the uterine cavity and to visualize pregnancy in an ectopic location. Ultrasound also allows the recognition of blood effusions in the pelvic and / or abdominal area.

Treatments

Ectopic pregnancy can be treated:

In early cases, without any therapy (spontaneous resolution) or through a medical therapy based on methotrexate (a chemotherapy that prevents the cellular growth of pregnancy).

In the most advanced or symptomatic cases, or when drug therapy has failed, through laparoscopic surgery. Depending on the case, the affected tube (salpingectomy) is removed or only the ectopic pregnancy is removed.

The First Pregnancy Ultrasound After An In Vitro Fertilization Treatment

On what day after IVF do the first pregnancy ultrasound, what it will show and tell about pregnancy

In vitro fertilization, or IVF, makes it possible to give birth to women with infertility and other diseases. For the timely detection of various deviations in the development of the foetus, research using ultrasound waves is widely used. The first ultrasound after IVF can be done 3 weeks after the successful implantation of embryos.

first-pregnancy-ultrasound

Indications for ultrasound

Ultrasound scan after IVF makes it possible to detect multiple pregnancy, ectopic attachment of the embryo and others in time pathology foetal development. About possible of pregnancy can be found by level chorionic gonadotropin in the blood, or hCG.

Three weeks after the successful transfer of embryos using research, you can:

  • Make sure that pregnancy has come;
  • Determine the degree of viability of the foetus;
  • Diagnose the development of possible pathologies;
  • Exclude the possibility miscarriage;
  • Determine the place of fixation of the foetal egg;
  • Find out the number of embryos;
  • Determine the condition of the ovaries.

The first ultrasound at ECO and coming of pregnancy should be done to exclude down syndromes. An ultrasound study after a failed IVF allows you to determine the cause of this and develop measures to prevent it.

When to do ultrasounds?

After a day of embryo implantation (DPP), the level is measured HCG. When a result of 100 mU/ml is achieved, a conclusion can be drawn about the development of pregnancy. However, for the final result after IVF, you must pass ultrasound procedure.

Ultrasound after IVF is carried out as during normal pregnancy. Diagnostic methods are divided into transvaginal and transabdominal. It is extremely rare to use both options.

With the transvaginal ultrasound method, a sensor placed in a special condom is inserted into vagina. With this method, the most accurate results are achieved even at the initial stage. Due to the small size of the embryo, determining its location is quite difficult. To maximize the proximity of the ultrasound sensor to the fatal egg, it should be administered precisely by the transvaginal method.

The transabdominal ultrasound method for IVF is used in late pregnancy. The study is carried out in a supine position. A gel is applied to the skin of the abdomen, which improves the patency of ultrasonic vibrations. When the sensor moves through the body, the resulting image appears on the screen.

When conducting IVF, several embryos are used. Sometimes only one of them begins to develop. In many cases, everything takes root, so it is very important to know their exact number. This is necessary to remove excess embryos as early as possible. For this purpose, ultrasound is also used.

Sometimes, with a failed implantation, ectopic pregnancy. In this case, the foetus instead of the uterus is attached to the fallopian tube or to the ovaries. A pregnancy ultrasound helps to notice this pathology at an early stage.

Ultrasound after IVF is one of the most important diagnostic procedures. It allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of medical intervention and determine the order of further actions. There is no need to fear for the health of the unborn child. The specified method has no contraindications and is safe for everyone. During the bearing of the baby, it is better to undergo an examination several times. This will help detect any pathology development.

Second Screening During Pregnancy: How To Prepare And Decipher The Results

Nowadays, doctors refer to every pregnant woman to an ultrasound scan. The standard implies three ultrasound examinations, regardless of the presence of complaints, even if the fetus is rated as healthy.

The so-called perinatal screenings include, in addition to ultrasound, a biochemical blood test of the expectant mother. Why screening for 2 trimesters is needed, and what are the standards for ultrasound, how long it is performed and why - we will talk about this and another in this article.

When is ultrasound prescribed?

A screening pregnancy ultrasound is usually performed 3 times since it is customary to divide the gestation period into 3 trimesters.

The first screening is done from the 10th to the 14th week of pregnancy, and often only this study involves a double test: in addition to ultrasound, an analysis of the venous blood of a pregnant woman is performed.

The results of such a procedure with an accurate statistical probability determine how possible the development of dangerous abnormalities in the fetus.

Second ultrasound screening, as a rule, does not include other tests. The exception is a suspicion of pathology during the first study or women of the so-called risk groups. An ultrasound of 2 trimesters is done from the 18-20th to the 24th week from the last menstruation. Compliance with the exact terms is very important since if they are inconsistent, the interpretation of ultrasound is considered inaccurate.

And finally, the third screening corresponds to the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, performed from the 30th to the 34th week.

Who needs a second screening, and why?

Level 2 ultrasound cost in Delhi in our country is prescribed for every pregnant woman, regardless of the presence of complaints. But you should be especially careful with the study of pregnant women at risk.

  • First pregnant women over 35 years old;
  • Closely married persons;
  • Pregnant women with a burdened obstetric and gynaecological history;
  • Parents with alcoholism and drug addiction.

But all other expectant mothers should treat the second ultrasound screening responsibly so as not to miss the occurrence of a threatening pregnancy pathology at an early stage. Correspondence of the screening result and the ultrasound norm will allow the woman to feel calm, realizing that everything is in order with her and the child.

Ultrasound Diagnosis During Pregnancy: How Much “D” Is Needed?

Ultrasound has firmly entered our lives. Today, no thorough examination of the body is complete without this type of diagnosis. Ultrasound diagnosis is of particular importance in monitoring pregnancy. It should be at least three times in 9 months for all, without exception, expectant mothers: in the first trimester (11-13 weeks), in the second trimester (19-21 weeks) and the third trimester (30-32 weeks).

But there are already so many ultrasound research formats - 2D, 3D, and even 4D! And all of them are an integral complement to a full and high-quality examination of pregnant women.

When cannot do without 3D?

The research has stated that it is necessary to conduct a 3d ultrasound of the fetal brain for all pregnant women when screening for the first trimester - at 12 weeks. This type of study on changes in the brain allows you to identify severe defects in the spinal cord, namely, Spina Bifida (open spinal cord). At such early times, only 2D scanning may be insufficient, so 3D is an important addition.

In the II-III trimesters, one cannot do without a 3D scan of the fetal brain if it is suspected of defects in its individual structures, such as partial or complete agenesis (absence) of the corpus callosum, transparent septum cavity, and cerebellar worm.

In what cases cannot do without 4D?

4D ultrasound is also an integral part of the examination of the fetus in the II-III trimesters of pregnancy, especially for the diagnosis of facial defects, namely the eyes (the presence of eyeballs in the orbits), cleft lips and palate, the presence or absence of auricles, defects of the nose, extremities, and fingers.

What diagnostic problems can occur during 3D and 4D ultrasound?

The problems with using 3D and 4D for diagnostics are only in the correctness of obtaining 2D slices. This is influenced by many factors: the position of the fetus, the presence of amniotic fluid in the study area, the thickness and density of adipose tissue of the anterior abdominal wall of the uterus, and the qualification of the doctor.

What are the benefits of 4D over 3D ultrasound?

4D allows you to observe the fetus in real-time, to see its movements and even emotions, smile - and this is its main advantage over 3D.

Is 4D ultrasound enough for a doctor to be informative, or is it necessary to do without 2D indicators?

Of course, 2D ultrasound is an integral part of all ultrasound examinations of pregnant women. All other methods only complement it and significantly improve the quality of the study. One of the most powerful ultrasound schools in obstetrics in the world - the Fetal Medicine Foundation - conducts all of its training and certification for doctors based on 2D images and videos.

Are there any contraindications for an ultrasound?

There is no study on the negative effects of pregnancy ultrasound on the human body or fetus. Therefore, there are no contraindications to ultrasound for pregnant women. There are also no restrictions on the number of such studies - they are carried out as much as necessary in each case.

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