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Tests To Detect Oesophageal Cancer

Usually, oesophageal cancers are discovered when a person has signs or symptoms. If oesophageal cancer is suspected, studies and tests will be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. If cancer is discovered, additional tests will be performed to help determine the extent of cancer.

Medical history and physical exam

If you have symptoms of oesophageal cancer, the doctor will ask questions about your medical history to analyze possible risk factors and learn more about the symptoms.

Your doctor will also do a test to detect possible signs of oesophageal cancer and other medical problems. The doctor will probably pay special attention to your neck and chest areas.

If the test results are abnormal, your doctor will probably order tests to help find the problem. You may also be asked to contact a gastroenterologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive system) for further tests and treatment.

Imaging studies to find oesophageal cancer

The imaging using sound waves, X-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive imaging inside the body substances. Imaging studies can be done for many reasons, such as:

  • Help find a suspicious area that could be cancer
  • Know if cancer has spread, and if so, how far
  • Help determine if the treatment is effective
  • Detect possible signs of cancer returning after treatment

Study with barium intake

In this test, the patient swallows a thick, limestone fluid called barium that covers the walls of the esophagus. When x-rays are taken, barium delineates the esophagus. This test can be done alone or as part of a series of x-rays that include the stomach and part of the intestine, called x-rays of the upper gastrointestinal tract. A barium intake test can show any abnormal area on the normally uniform surface of the inner lining of the esophagus, but cannot be used to determine how far cancer has spread outside the esophagus.

CT scan

A CT (computed tomography, CT) uses x - rays to produce detailed cross-sectionall images of the body. This study can help determine if oesophageal cancer has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes (bean-shaped groups of immune system cells where cancers often spread first) or to distant parts of the body. Before conducting the study, you may be asked to drink approximately 1 to 2 pints (between half and one liter) of a liquid called oral contrast. This helps to delineate the esophagus and intestines. If you are having trouble swallowing, you should inform your doctor before the CT. Before having a CT scan, it is essential to know CT scan cost in south Delhi.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Like computed tomography (CT), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) provides detailed images of soft tissues. However, MRIs use powerful radio waves and magnets instead of X-rays. To better show the details, a contrast material, called gadolinium, may be injected into a vein before the study is done. MRI can be used to see abnormal areas in the brain and spinal cord that may be due to the spread of cancer.

Positron emission tomography

Generally, the positron emission tomography (positron emission tomography, PET) uses a form of radioactive sugar (known as fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG) is injected into the blood. Normal cells use different amounts of sugar, depending on how fast they are growing. Cancer cells, which grow rapidly, are more likely to absorb larger amounts of radioactive sugar than normal cells. These areas of radioactivity can be seen on a PET CT scan using a special camera.

What is the Best Method to Detect Colorectal Cancer as Soon as Possible?

Patients with certain diseases or predisposing conditions can benefit from a surveillance program: early diagnosis or screening. It consists of performing a fecal occult blood test and a colonoscopy to diagnose the tumor at an early or early stage in people who do not have any symptoms and have certain risk factors.

The diagnostic process begins with a proper interrogation, in which the doctor will collect information about personal and family medical history, and a complete physical examination of all systems. The information obtained in both processes will help direct the type of complementary examinations that must be performed to complete the diagnosis.

Today we have a wide range of diagnostic methods or complementary tests aimed at diagnosing cancer:

Analytical: the hemogram can show if there is anemia, this being an indirect sign of bleeding. The blood biochemistry can guide on the function of organs like the liver or the kidney.

Stool test: This is a test to detect blood in the stool, which may indicate the presence of polyps or cancer.

Tumor markers: Tumor markers are substances that can often be discovered in higher than normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. It is important to consider that tumor markers can be normal in a patient with cancer and that not all tumors can produce an elevation of markers.

Colonoscopy: colonoscopy is the introduction of a device that has a light at the end and that allows to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum and take a biopsy if the observed lesions are required. With this technique, polyps can also be resected if they are not very large.

Radiological examinations:

Opaque enema: consists in the administration of a barium contrast for the year. This contrast shows the silhouette of color and straight. It can detect injuries of a certain size. If a complete colonoscopy has been performed, it is not necessary to perform an opaque enema.

Abdominal or abdominal-pelvic ultrasound: based on whole abdomen ultrasound price. It is useful to study the liver, to know if there is free fluid in the abdomen or to detect masses in the abdomen or pelvis.

Scanning (CT scan cost in Delhi NCR) of the thorax and abdomen: it provides information on local extension, if there are metastases in the liver, lung, etc.

Abdominal resonance: it is a technique different from CT, which is usually done when there are findings in the scanner that require complementary examinations. It is essential for the correct staging of rectal cancer.

Endoscopic ultrasound: it combines the endoscopic technique with an ultrasound transmitter and produces an image (ultrasound). It is very useful for the preoperative diagnosis of rectal cancer.

Positron emission tomography (PET CT scan): is a nuclear medicine test, which involves injecting a marked contrast with a radioactive substance and measuring the emission of particles called positrons giving a global view of the body and showing if there is disease.

Laparoscopy: is a technique that involves inserting an endoscope into the abdominal cavity, through holes that the surgeon makes in the abdominal wall. In rare cases this maneuver is reached for the sole purpose of establishing the diagnosis. It is usually used as a surgical technique to remove certain tumors in this area.

Prostate Cancer: How to Determine and What to do after this?

The stage of diagnosis of prostate cancer begins with the appointment of an urologist or oncologist. As a rule, by this time the patient suspects the disease according to the parameters of the PSA test, or after a routine examination of the urologist.

The diagnosis of prostate cancer is always based on histological findings. For this, a puncture or saturation biopsy is performed.

For the most effective treatment of prostate cancer requires accurate information about the localization of cancer. Therefore, the diagnostic labs use a number of PET-CT examinations, shown in prostate cancer. PET-CT is used not only at the stage of diagnosis, but also when calculating the radiation dosimetry plan and when evaluating the effectiveness of targeted therapy. The specialists of the hospital have a unique experience in the use of PET-CT with radioisotope sensitive to prostate cancer.

This examination determines prostate cancer with low PSA, when cancer spreads to the lymph nodes and is particularly effective in tracking the recurrence of the disease after surgery or radiation therapy. PET-CT with PSMA allows doctors to more accurately conduct diagnostics and select optimal treatment for the patient, taking into account its effectiveness and preservation of quality of life. The information on the exact location of the cancer is extremely important for the surgeon when deciding on the operation.

At the stage of diagnosing prostate cancer, it is important to obtain accurate information about the disease, for further treatment planning.

As part of routine physical examinations, men usually undergo a PSA (Prostatic Specific Antigen) test to test prostate cancer. The moment of truth comes when indicators are high, indicating the possibility of cancer. What to do in this case? Do you want to retake the test? To make a painful biopsy? And the worst thing is- what if the diagnosis is confirmed? Quickly start treatment, at the risk of causing impotence and incontinence?

Still more complicating is the fact that there is no clear consensus among experts on testing and treating prostate cancer. Many of them are generally against the PET CT scan, since the results usually lead to unwanted biopsy and unnecessary treatment.

Prostate cancer develops so slowly that only 15-20% of men are really in danger, but it was still impossible to distinguish between moderate cancer and life-threatening cancer, so we in vain treated somewhere 85% of men, putting them under the threat of impotence and incontinence almost without reason.

Ultrasound can measure the size of the prostate for biopsy, and color Doppler ultrasound captures an increased flow of blood that helps determine the cancer. The new technology also allows you to consider specific suspicious areas for biopsy.

If you have an elevated PSA, experts recommends:

  • Ask your doctor to perform a rectal examination to check if there are any swelling or disturbances and to pass an ultrasound to measure the size of the prostate;
  • If there is a suspicion of an infection, take a course of antibiotics and do a repeat PSA test;
  • MRI prostate using 3.0 Tesla. This technology determines cancer tumors with an accuracy of 85-90%, even very tiny, with a size of 5mm.
  • Make color ultrasound dopplerography.
  • Only then make a biopsy using information from MRI and Doppler ultrasound so that doctors can get more accurate results.

If you decide to undergo treatment, get a second opinion and discuss options for robotic prostatectomy, proton radiation and cryotherapy.

PET CT Scan For Cancer, Heart Problems, Brain Disorders, Nervous System Diagnosis

pet scan for cancer

What is a PET Scan?

PET is a positron emission tomography that makes your doctor check your body for various diseases. In this type of a scan special dyes are used and these dyes have radioactive tracers. After the tracers are injected into a vein of your arm, your organs and tissues start absorbing the tracer. Your body is put under a PET scanner and your doctor is able to find out whether your organs and tissues are working appropriately or not. The PET CT scan helps your doctor to find the blood flow, usage of the oxygen and usage of the sugar by your body, glucose metabolism and many more diseases.

This procedure is an outpatient procedure which implies that you are allowed to go back home after the completion of the procedure.

Why is the PET Scan done?

The PET scan is done to diagnose whether you are suffering from the following diseases or not-

Though other imaging tests like the CT scan and the MRI are also beneficial yet PET scans are able to diagnose the problems persisting at the cellular level. This enables the doctor to very clearly view the diseases called as the complex systemic diseases like

  •         Brain tumours
  •         Seizures
  •         Memory disorders
  •         Coronary artery disease
  •         Lung Cancer Lymph Nodes
  •         PET scan for diabetics

When PET is used for diagnosing the cancer, it helps your doctor to view very clearly the metabolization of the cancer and to know the areas to which the cancer has spread. The response of the tumour to the chemotherapy is also shown using the PET.

What is the procedure of the PET Scan?

During the PET scan procedure, you’ll either be given a gas to inhale or else a solution to drink. You might be given tracers via a vein in your arm. For absorbing the tracers, your body would need some time, therefore, you’ll be asked to wait for about an hour tentatively before the beginning of the scan.

Now you’ll be made to lie on a narrow table and this table would be attached to the PET machine. The table will be made to glide into the machine. This would be a slow procedure.

You’ll be asked not to move at all during the scan. You’ll also be asked not to breathe for some time. While the test would be on, you’ll be made to hear buzzing and clicking noises.

When all the important images would be recorded, you’ll be made to slide out of the machine. Your test would have completed.

After the test gets completed, you’ll be asked to carry on your normal day. You might be given certain instructions by the doctor. You’ll be asked to drink ample fluids for letting you flush the tracers out of your body’s system. Mostly, it takes about two days to let all the tracers leave your body.

When will you get your PET CT Scan results?

PET scan results would be available within 24-48 hours. A trained specialist will be asked to interpret the images of the PET. This information will be shared will your doctor. Your doctor with you will go through your results at your follow up appointment.

How should you prepare yourself for the PET scan?

Complete instructions will be given to you by your doctor for the PET scan preparation (rules). You should reveal your prescriptions and the medicines being taken by you to your doctor. You will not be allowed to eat anything for more than eight hours before the procedure takes place though you’ll be allowed to drink water.

In case if you are pregnant, you should tell your doctor because the test could be unsafe for your baby. You’ll be given special instructions for your test in case if you are Diabetic because fasting may impact your sugar levels of the blood.

Hospital will provide you with a gown to wear and will ask you to remove your jewellery as metal can be an interference in the procedure.

How much would the PET Scan Cost?

You can get the PET scan of your chest, brain or the whole body done at various diagnostic centres associated with 3HCare. Cost of PET CT scan can differ at different labs. To get a transparent and competitive pricing for your scan, logon to 3H Care portal and book your test.

To know more about the price of a PET scan in different cities in India click lowest PET Scan price

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