MRI was an important development in radiology because computed tomography was very successful in imaging hard tissues such as bone, but computed tomography was difficult and difficult to visualize, and the image quality was poor. Thanks to MRI technology, soft tissues such as the brain, heart, digestive system organs and kidneys become much well visualized.
When do we want to see hard tissues? Because, in cases that can cause head trauma, such as traffic accidents, good visualization of hard tissues such as bone allows us to detect fractures.
When do we want to see soft tissues? In cases that affect brain tissue such as tumour or stroke, visualizing the soft tissue of the brain allows us to diagnose these conditions. MRI is a must. Methods such as functional MR (fMRI), which emerged in MRI test labs in Delhi with the development of standard MR methods, have enabled many groundbreaking studies in neuroscience.
A standard MRI film is similar to a series of photos taken and gives a snapshot of the person, for example, the brain, just as it was taken. Thanks to real-time MRI, we can now see it as a video, not just a snapshot.
In what cases are fMRIs performed?
- Firstly, for purely scientific purposes: this is a study of the functioning of the normal brain and its functional asymmetry. This technique has revived the interest of researchers in mapping brain functions: without resorting to invasive interventions, you can see which areas of the brain are responsible for a particular process. Perhaps the biggest breakthrough was made in understanding higher cognitive processes, including attention, memory, and executive functions. Such studies have allowed the use of fMRI for practical purposes, far from medicine and neuroscience (as a lie detector, in marketing research, etc.).
- Secondly, fMRI begins to be actively used in practical medicine, in particular, for preoperative mapping of the main functions (motor, speech) before neurosurgical interventions for volumetric formations of the brain or incurable epilepsy. As a rule, motor zones for arms and legs, tongue, and speech zones are assessed: their presence, location relative to the lesion, the presence of homologs in the healthy hemisphere, compensatory activation enhancement in the opposite hemisphere of the large brain or secondary zones. This information helps neurosurgeons to assess the risk of postoperative neurological deficit, choose the most convenient and least traumatic access, and suggest the volume of resection.
- Thirdly, researchers are also trying to introduce fMRI into routine clinical practice in various neurological and mental illnesses. The main goal of numerous works in this field is to assess changes in the functioning of the brain in response to damage to one or another of its parts - loss and (or) switching of zones, their displacement, etc., as well as dynamic observation of the restructuring of activation zones in response to ongoing medication therapy and (or) rehabilitation measures. Ultimately, fMRI studies conducted by MRI scan center in New Delhi on patients of various categories can help determine the prognostic value of various options for functional restructuring of the cortex to restore impaired functions and develop optimal treatment algorithms.