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What Is A Radioisotope Nephrography Or Renal Function Scintigraphy?

If the family doctor prescribes a kidney function test, most patients are puzzled. What is the procedure for the kidney function test? What is being tested, and how is that happening? A lot of questions, which we answer below.

When do you need the kidney function test?

The two kidneys are our two main excretory organs for all waste products that are water-soluble. In addition, they regulate the entire water and electrolyte balance and are responsible for a number of important physiological functions, including the regulation of blood pressure. Many laboratory parameters can be determined with a simple urine test or with blood tests such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid.

If these urine values ​​and kidney values ​​are no longer sufficient for a diagnosis, you must perform a kidney function test. It reveals how well the kidneys are perfused and how much urine is formed and excreted. In this case, a separate assessment of the paired organs is possible.

Sequence Renal function test- The most important:

  • The kidney function test (kidney scintigraphy, radioisotope nephrography) is used to examine the kidneys for their ability to ultrafiltration.
  • In the run-up, an informational discussion takes place, in which the doctor explains the procedure and gives written informed consent. If necessary, the intake of some medications must be suspended before the examination.
  • For the actual investigation, sufficient hydrogenation is necessary. The patient receives one or two venous indwelling cannulas for injection and if necessary, blood collection.
  • The kidney is visualized with a radioactive tracer, which collects after injection in the urinary tract and is tracked with a gamma camera.

At the same time, blood samples can be taken to measure the remaining radioactivity in the blood.

Kidney function test - How do the kidneys work?

The kidneys work as a highly efficient filtration system. In the renal corpuscles (glomeruli), the blood runs through a ball of capillaries separated from the urinary tract by a very thin layer of endothelial cells. These endothelial cells act as a filter: small molecules and ions such as water, sodium, and chloride can pass the barrier, whereas large particles such as blood proteins or blood cells are retained. This process is called ultrafiltration.

The amount of primary urine formed corresponds to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine clearance, two important laboratory parameters for kidney filtration performance. The entire blood volume goes through the kidneys about 300 times a day- a good 1,500 liters. The result is 180 liters of primary urine. Before undergoing a LFT, you should know the liver function test cost in Delhi.

Such a loss of water and electrolytes would be fatal. Therefore, in the distal renal tubules, a reabsorption takes place, with the liquid and minerals are specifically brought back into the bloodstream. Through this recovery, the body can accurately tare the electrolyte and water balance. What remains is one to two liters of final urine, which we eliminate daily.

Liver Function Test And Its Importance

To undergo a study of the liver profile does not make a special preparation, although the results will be more accurate if fasting is maintained for 10-12 hours prior to blood collection. The hepatic profile or hepatogram is basically a blood test specifically designed to assess whether or not the liver functions properly, for the diagnosis of liver diseases, to know if it has been affected by other pathologies originated in other parts of the body or to control the function Hepatic in patients who follow treatments with medications that are hepatotoxic.

It should be borne in mind that the liver is one of the most important organs because of its function in human metabolisms, such as the synthesis of plasma proteins; storage of iron, vitamins, and glycogen; protein synthesis such as albumin; the production of lipoproteins and triglycerides; cholesterol synthesis; bile production; detoxifying function, etc.

How should we prepare for a liver function panel?

They may ask your child to stop eating and drinking for 8 to 12 hours before having the blood test. Tell your child's doctor about any medications you are taking because there are some medications that can influence the test results.

The fact that your child is wearing a short-sleeved shirt on the day of the test can make things easier; they can also bring a toy or a book to get distracted.

How is the test done?

In most blood tests, a blood sample is drawn from a vein. For this purpose, a health professional:

  • The skin is cleaned first
  • Place a rubber (tourniquet) around the area so that the veins swell with blood.
  • Insert a needle into a vein (usually in the arm, either on the inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand)
  • Insert the blood sample into a vial or syringe.
  • Remove the rubber and remove the needle from the vein

In infants, blood can be drawn from a puncture in the heel. After cleaning the area, the healthcare professional will make a small puncture in the baby's heel with a small needle (or lancet) to collect a small sample of blood.

The extraction of a blood sample only causes temporary discomfort, and the only thing you feel is a short prick.

Doctors usually request the completion of a liver profile when the patient's medical history offers the suspicion that there is liver disease. In general, the confirmation of the diagnosis comes from the values ​​of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, AST, and ALT, since, either in isolation or in combination, they can indicate specific anomalies and cellular damage (cholestasis). If the values ​​are normal, the existence of pathology is ruled out.

On the other hand, in the case of liver disease, the hepatogram also offers useful information to establish a prognosis. Prothrombin time, bilirubin, and albumin are the most significant markers.

A Liver Function Test Helps With Liver Surgeries

Liver function tests are performed on blood samples and measure the values of enzymes and other substances produced by the liver. These substances include:

  • Alanine transaminase (ALT)
  • Albumin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Alpha-fetoprotein
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Bilirubin
  • Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • 5'-nucleotidase

The values of these substances measure the effectiveness of normal liver protein production and bile secretion. The values of other substances detect the presence and degree of liver inflammation. However, sometimes the values can be much higher than the norm, generally because the subject is suffering from other disorders.

One of the liver function tests is prothrombin time (prothrombin time, PT), used to calculate the international normalized ratio (international normalized ratio, INR). An abnormal result on the PT or INR test may indicate the presence of acute liver disease. In chronic liver diseases, an increasing PT or INR value usually indicates progression to liver failure.

Reliability of liver function tests

Both liver function tests are very reliable. While the blood test initially provides an overview of a possible disease of the organ, the Liver Function Test cost in Delhi provides reliable data on the functioning of the organ and can thus save lives. Because if the surgical risk is known, the surgery can be done with appropriate precautions. But even with the latest methods, surgery on the liver is always a risky procedure.

How does this liver function test work?

At the beginning of the test, patients receive an injection of methacetin.

Methacetin is an enzyme that is harmless to the human body and rapidly converts to CO2 (carbon dioxide) and paracetamol. This transformation makes a detoxification enzyme that is formed in the liver. The decomposition product CO2 is released to the outside through the breathing air. To analyze the respiratory air and its carbon dioxide content and thereby determine how fast the enzyme works, the patients are given a specially designed respiratory mask for this purpose. Thus, the enzyme performance of the liver can be measured, and an assessment of the surgical risk can be made.

The less carbon dioxide in the exhaled air, the worse the liver works. In this case, preliminary damage to the liver is assumed, and the surgical risk is very high.

What do you do if your liver function is insufficient for surgery?

We cannot improve the function itself, but the volume, by stimulating liver growth before surgery. For example, a vessel is closed so that the diseased part of the liver, which has to be removed anyway, shrinks. The cells of the healthy liver area notice that they have to do more and make this part grow. In some cases, this helps very well and allows partial surgery.

Another variation is to change the therapy methods. For example, you can "burn" individual offshoots with a special procedure or prefer a drug therapy.

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