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Liver Function Test: Interpret The Results

Liver function tests are tests performed when a liver dysfunction is suspected. To know what does it consist of? What diseases can it reveal? What is the LFT test cost in Delhi, keep reading.

The designation "liver function tests" is somewhat misleading because most of these tests detect inflammation or damage to the liver; they do not actually explore the metabolic or secretory functions of liver bile. Such inflammation or lesions may be present even before the functions of the liver are affected. Liver function tests are blood tests that are a non-invasive way to check for liver disease (for example, hepatitis in a blood donation) and to measure the severity and progression of a disease of the liver and its response to treatment.

liver-function-tests

What is a hepatic blood test?

The hepatic blood test makes it possible to identify certain pathologies of the liver. Several elements are then assayed: hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin and albumin. The dosage of this protein makes it possible to evaluate the synthesis capacities of the liver.

  • Laboratory analyses are generally effective for:
  • Detect inflammation, lesions or dysfunction of the liver
  • Assess the severity of a liver injury
  • Monitor a person's progress in liver disease and response to treatment
  • Specify the diagnosis

When is a full liver test prescribed?

Liver function tests may be requested to confirm an abnormality in liver function and to determine its origin. For example in case of jaundice, dark urine, in the presence of nausea, diarrhea or unexplained vomiting, clear or discolored stools, weight loss or even fatigue, a liver test is indicated. It also makes it possible to monitor the development of liver damage once the diagnosis has been made.

What is a liver test?

To carry out a hepatic assessment, it is necessary to take a blood test. From this, a determination of enzymes produced by the liver or specific to this organ is carried out. Here are the main ones:

  • The transaminase (SGPT or ALT and SGOT or AST)
  • Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase ( Gamma-GT or GGT)
  • The bilirubin
  • The alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
  • The prothrombin level

Disturbed liver balance: rate and causes

Although these indicators alone cannot confirm a particular pathology, certain dosages are however symptomatic of specific disorders.

The abnormally high bilirubin level may indicate cholestasis, pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer. Hepatic failure is usually indicated by an abnormally low prothrombin level.

An increase in transaminases (ALAT and ASAT) shows the presence of cytolysis, corresponding to the destruction of liver cells during viral hepatitis, alcoholism, drug intoxication or even a vesicle problem biliary. Anyway, a precise interpretation of these examinations to say the least complex must be made and the results should be compared to other symptoms before drawing conclusions. Other blood tests as well as additional examinations - MRI, ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts - must be carried out.

Another type of liver function test is prothrombin time which was made for calculating the international normalized ratio. In a situation where this test seems abnormal, it signifies that there is an acute disorder in liver.

What Is A Radioisotope Nephrography Or Renal Function Scintigraphy?

If the family doctor prescribes a kidney function test, most patients are puzzled. What is the procedure for the kidney function test? What is being tested, and how is that happening? A lot of questions, which we answer below.

When do you need the kidney function test?

The two kidneys are our two main excretory organs for all waste products that are water-soluble. In addition, they regulate the entire water and electrolyte balance and are responsible for a number of important physiological functions, including the regulation of blood pressure. Many laboratory parameters can be determined with a simple urine test or with blood tests such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid.

If these urine values ​​and kidney values ​​are no longer sufficient for a diagnosis, you must perform a kidney function test. It reveals how well the kidneys are perfused and how much urine is formed and excreted. In this case, a separate assessment of the paired organs is possible.

Sequence Renal function test- The most important:

  • The kidney function test (kidney scintigraphy, radioisotope nephrography) is used to examine the kidneys for their ability to ultrafiltration.
  • In the run-up, an informational discussion takes place, in which the doctor explains the procedure and gives written informed consent. If necessary, the intake of some medications must be suspended before the examination.
  • For the actual investigation, sufficient hydrogenation is necessary. The patient receives one or two venous indwelling cannulas for injection and if necessary, blood collection.
  • The kidney is visualized with a radioactive tracer, which collects after injection in the urinary tract and is tracked with a gamma camera.

At the same time, blood samples can be taken to measure the remaining radioactivity in the blood.

Kidney function test - How do the kidneys work?

The kidneys work as a highly efficient filtration system. In the renal corpuscles (glomeruli), the blood runs through a ball of capillaries separated from the urinary tract by a very thin layer of endothelial cells. These endothelial cells act as a filter: small molecules and ions such as water, sodium, and chloride can pass the barrier, whereas large particles such as blood proteins or blood cells are retained. This process is called ultrafiltration.

The amount of primary urine formed corresponds to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine clearance, two important laboratory parameters for kidney filtration performance. The entire blood volume goes through the kidneys about 300 times a day- a good 1,500 liters. The result is 180 liters of primary urine. Before undergoing a LFT, you should know the liver function test cost in Delhi.

Such a loss of water and electrolytes would be fatal. Therefore, in the distal renal tubules, a reabsorption takes place, with the liquid and minerals are specifically brought back into the bloodstream. Through this recovery, the body can accurately tare the electrolyte and water balance. What remains is one to two liters of final urine, which we eliminate daily.

Liver Function Test And Its Importance

To undergo a study of the liver profile does not make a special preparation, although the results will be more accurate if fasting is maintained for 10-12 hours prior to blood collection. The hepatic profile or hepatogram is basically a blood test specifically designed to assess whether or not the liver functions properly, for the diagnosis of liver diseases, to know if it has been affected by other pathologies originated in other parts of the body or to control the function Hepatic in patients who follow treatments with medications that are hepatotoxic.

It should be borne in mind that the liver is one of the most important organs because of its function in human metabolisms, such as the synthesis of plasma proteins; storage of iron, vitamins, and glycogen; protein synthesis such as albumin; the production of lipoproteins and triglycerides; cholesterol synthesis; bile production; detoxifying function, etc.

How should we prepare for a liver function panel?

They may ask your child to stop eating and drinking for 8 to 12 hours before having the blood test. Tell your child's doctor about any medications you are taking because there are some medications that can influence the test results.

The fact that your child is wearing a short-sleeved shirt on the day of the test can make things easier; they can also bring a toy or a book to get distracted.

How is the test done?

In most blood tests, a blood sample is drawn from a vein. For this purpose, a health professional:

  • The skin is cleaned first
  • Place a rubber (tourniquet) around the area so that the veins swell with blood.
  • Insert a needle into a vein (usually in the arm, either on the inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand)
  • Insert the blood sample into a vial or syringe.
  • Remove the rubber and remove the needle from the vein

In infants, blood can be drawn from a puncture in the heel. After cleaning the area, the healthcare professional will make a small puncture in the baby's heel with a small needle (or lancet) to collect a small sample of blood.

The extraction of a blood sample only causes temporary discomfort, and the only thing you feel is a short prick.

Doctors usually request the completion of a liver profile when the patient's medical history offers the suspicion that there is liver disease. In general, the confirmation of the diagnosis comes from the values ​​of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, AST, and ALT, since, either in isolation or in combination, they can indicate specific anomalies and cellular damage (cholestasis). If the values ​​are normal, the existence of pathology is ruled out.

On the other hand, in the case of liver disease, the hepatogram also offers useful information to establish a prognosis. Prothrombin time, bilirubin, and albumin are the most significant markers.

How Much Liver does a Person Need? A liver Function Test Provides Information

The liver has an excellent characteristic: it is the only human organ capable of "re-growing." This is of great benefit, for example in case of cancerous activity. However, how much of the liver can be removed without risking liver failure depends on the functioning of organ. With the liver function test, the hepatic function can be tested, and the operation planned precisely.

In which diseases is a partial removal of the liver necessary?

The most common cause is liver metastasis, i.e., offspring of a tumor in the liver. Less common are primary forms of cancer that originate from the liver, namely bile duct cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. They usually occur in organs that are already damaged, often by chronic liver cell inflammation (hepatitis) or long-term alcohol consumption.

Also, there are benign diseases such as liver cysts or hemangiomas. These can become so large that they press on surrounding organs such as the stomach and need to be operated on. To get rid of them, one must know about LFT test cost to spend a healthy lifestyle.

Why is it essential to test their function before partial liver removal?

In contrast to the large intestine, where it is less critical to remove 5 centimeters, more or less, one can remove too much from a liver. If this is the case, the patient has hepatic hypofunction and often needs to know about Liver Function Test cost in Delhi.

How much liver does a person need?

That depends on their functionality, which makes the use of the test so exciting and useful. About 75 percent can be removed from a completely healthy liver. Hepatic cells show specific pathological changes, be it a slight fatty degeneration, liver inflammation, liver fibrosis (remodeling of liver tissue in connective tissue) or even liver cirrhosis (liver shrinkage). The sicker the liver is, the less it performs and the less the surgeon may remove. LFT Test cost in Delhi can help you in determining the severity of the disease.

How does the test work?

The patient is injected with a volume-adjusted amount of the drug 13C-methacetin via a vein. This remedy then "floats" on the liver, which metabolizes it. Functioning liver cells convert this drug into paracetamol and 13CO2 relatively quickly. The 13CO2 is released and measured again via the breathing air. The device displays this on a graph. Once the maximum is reached, the test can be stopped. The test usually takes 30 to 40 minutes. With cirrhosis of the liver, it can last up to an hour, and the curve can be quite flat, as the liver has far more trouble metabolizing the drug.

In which cases do you have high liver function values?

In metastasis surgery, this often applies, that is, if it is offspring of another tumor in the liver. Often the liver function is still so intact that you can remove about three-quarters of the liver. By contrast, in primary liver cancer, the role of the liver is usually so limited that surgery is no longer possible and only drug therapies or alternative therapies can be used.

What is a Liver Test and What are Its Parameters?

A liver test consists of dosing a number of enzymes or substances transformed or manufactured in whole or in part by the liver, in order to assess the proper functioning of the liver or liver metabolism.

Why to go for a LFT Test?

The liver assessment allows, on the one hand, research a possible abnormal liver function, on the other hand, to clarify the nature of the abnormality highlighted to understand the origin of the attack better. Among different types of liver dysfunction, we distinguish different syndromes, the main ones of which are hepatic insufficiency (or hepatocellular insufficiency), cytolysis, cholestasis (with or without jaundice) and inflammation. When the diagnosis is established, the repetition dosages can then monitor the evolution of the anomaly.

Liver function tests (LFT Test) include the following parameters:

Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a pigment derived from the metabolism of the HEM group whose elevation in the plasma determines a striking clinical sign such as jaundice.

Alkaline Phosphatase: The function of this enzyme is unknown. It is present in various cell lines such as the hepatocyte, the biliary epithelium, the osteocyte, the enterocyte and the cells of the placental trophoblast. Therefore, its elevation in plasma can occur in various hepatobiliary, bone, intestinal pathologies and also in the last third of pregnancy.

Albumin: Albumin corresponds to 65% of the serum proteins and has a half-life of 3 weeks. The concentration in the plasma depends on the ability of synthesis and plasma volume. Therefore, variations of both determine changes in serum levels. In general, albumin is a useful marker of the severity of chronic liver disease although its levels can be affected by changes in renal function, urinary or intestinal losses.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): This enzyme is present in the parenchymal cells of the heart, muscle, and liver. Its subcellular location corresponds to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria. The elevation of serum activity of AST is usually accompanied by other alterations of liver laboratory tests and reflects hepatocellular necrosis.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): This enzyme is a cytosolic enzyme found mostly in hepatocytes, which gives it a higher specificity than AST. Its meaning is the same as the latter meaning it rises markedly in acute cellular necrosis phenomena and to a lesser degree when there is a chronic destructive process of the hepatocytes.

Total Proteins: The analysis of Total Protein in urine and brain spinal fluid is of great value in the diagnosis of kidney and central nervous system diseases. Elevations in urinary protein are very common in the following conditions: vigorous exercise, fever and hypothermia, nephrosis and diabetic nephropathy and urinary tract infections. The analysis of the total protein in the brain spinal fluid helps in the diagnosis of conditions such as meningitis, CNS tumors, and cerebral hemorrhage.

Globulin: Globulins are a group of water-soluble proteins found in all animals and plants. Among the most critical globulins are seroglobulins (blood), lactoglobulins (milk), ovoglobulins (egg), legumin, fibrinogen, antibodies (gamma-globulins) and numerous proteins of the seeds.

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