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Most Common Diagnostic Tests to Prevent Disease

When it comes to health, it is best not to risk it, so it is important to have regular check-ups and diagnostic tests to prevent future health problems and, if you have them, to be able to treat them immediately.

If you are looking for a trustworthy clinic, visit diagnostic labs in Delhi. These labs are famous for professional experts and advanced state-of-the-art machinery with which they carry out diagnostic tests.

common-diagnostic-tests

What is preventive medicine and how does it influence your health

Preventive medicine is the branch that focuses on disease prevention in line with curative medicine, from which it cannot be separated. There are diseases that humans can contract more easily, either by location or by genetics.

Genetic or hereditary diseases that can be prevented with medical tests

There are certain diseases that can be passed from parents to children through DNA either from birth or over time, that are divided into three types depending on whether they affect one or more genes. To find out if you are susceptible to inheriting these disorders, it is necessary to carry out a genetic study that consists of a blood or tissue analysis.

Perhaps the most "visible" disease in prevention campaigns is cancer. It is a multifactorial disease in which genetic factors intervene -pro germline mutations in specific genes- and environmental factors. In other words, the genetic mutations that cause cancer are usually hereditary, although they can also occur due to the exposure of a family to a common external factor such as smoking.

If your family member has suffered or is suffering from cancer, the ideal is to carry out level 2 ultrasound, nuclear PET scan Delhi, MRI test or CT scan, according to age and rhythm of life to rule out this possibility and, if positive, start treatment as soon as possible. The most common inherited cancers are breast and ovarian cancer in women, or colorectal cancer, also called as Lynch syndrome.

Healthy habits to prevent disease

It may sound like a cliche but, practicing sports daily together with a balanced and healthy diet can prevent a large number of diseases, especially those that have to do with vitamin deficiencies or excess fats -cholesterol- in your body. If you agree to carry out a health check often, such as diagnostic tests, ultrasound test, PET CT scan or blood tests, you can prevent the appearance of diseases and treat them in time if they appear.

Most important diagnostic tests in preventive medicine

Some of the most common preventive medicine tests are mammograms, and ultrasounds, in the case of women, MRI test or 3D ultrasound plays an essential role in diagnosing anatomical abnormality invisible to the human eye.

Mammography is an essential test to detect breast cancer

Although it's a scary topic, experts recommend having an annual checkup and mammograms every two to three years, especially for all women between the ages of 40 and 60. Although they do not prevent breast cancer, mammograms can save lives because, if cancer is found early, it is easier to treat.

Ultrasound, a first medical evaluation of guarantees

A breast ultrasound, or sonography, is a noninvasive imaging test that detects lesions or tumors that mammography does not distinguish.

What results does an MRI offer us today?

MRI test in east Delhi is a radiological study whose objective is to obtain images using radio magnets and probes and, contrary to tomography or radiography, MRIs do not use radiation.

Role of Echocardiography in Blood Flow Obstruction Disorder

Ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography) is one of the most widely used techniques for diagnosing cardiac disease since it provides excellent quality images and is:

  1. Non-invasive
  2. Harmless
  3. Relatively cheap
  4. Widely available

echocardiography

Level 2 ultrasound is also used to diagnose vascular disorders in other parts of the body.

Echocardiography can be used to detect if the heart muscle is moving normally and to measure the volume of blood pumped with each beat. This procedure can also detect abnormalities in the structure of the heart, such as defects in the heart valves , congenital anomalies (such as holes in the walls between the different chambers of the heart) and increased thickness of the walls or chambers of the heart. One should get complete information about doppler ultrasound cost before undergoing any diagnosis.

Echocardiography can also be used to detect a pericardial effusion, in which there is fluid accumulation between the two layers of the heart (pericardium) and constrictive pericarditis, in which scar tissue forms throughout the pericardium. It also detects dissection of the aorta, a tear inside the layers of the aortic wall.

The main types of ultrasound are:

  1. Two-dimensional
  2. Three-dimensional
  3. Doppler
  4. Color doppler

The two - dimensional ultrasound is the technique most widely used and produces realistic two - dimensional images, for "cuts" generated by computer. By joining the cuts, you can recreate a three-dimensional structure.

The Doppler ultrasound shows the direction and speed of blood circulation, so that it can detect the turbulent flow caused by a narrowing or blockage of blood vessels.The Doppler color shows the different speeds of blood flow in different colors.

4D ultrasound test and color doppler ultrasound are frequently used to help diagnose disorders that affect the heart and arteries and veins of the trunk, legs, and arms. Since these procedures can show the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart's chambers and blood vessels, they allow the doctor to assess the structure and function of these parts. For example, it is possible to determine whether the heart valves open and close correctly, whether and how much blood leaks when closed, and whether blood flows normally. Abnormal connections between an artery and a vein or between the heart chambers can also be detected.

How echocardiography is performed?

Ultrasound waves are emitted by a probe that can both emit and detect them (transducer). Typically, the transducer is portable and is placed on the chest over the heart. The examiner gels the skin under the transducer to help transmit the sound waves. The transducer is connected to a computer that displays the image on a screen and stores it in digital format. By changing the position and angle of the transducer, doctors can look at the heart and major nearby blood vessels from various angles to get a detailed picture of cardiac structures and function. During several moments of the exam, the person must hold their breath for about 10 seconds to ensure that well-defined images are obtained.

Color Doppler Echocardiography

Transesophageal echocardiography may be performedif the doctor needs to get more definition or to analyze the aorta or the structures of the back of the heart (especially the left atrium or the left ventricle). To carry out this procedure in ultrasound lab, a small flexible tube with an ultrasound transducer is passed through the end of the affected person's throat into the esophagus, so that the transducer is located just behind the heart. Since this procedure is uncomfortable, the person is sedated and the throat is anesthetized with an anesthetic spray. Transesophageal ultrasound test is also used when there is difficulty in performing common echocardiography due to obesity, lung disorders or other technical problems, or when the diagnosis of endocarditis is made.

Is 4D Ultrasound Safe During Pregnancy?

The ultrasound used for the baby's controls during pregnancy works with sound waves. Thanks to these waves, a general view of the baby in the womb is obtained. This image controls the other elements, such as amniotic fluid, which are important for the development and development of the baby. All these checks are extremely important to ensure a smooth delivery. Although Pregnancy Ultrasound has been used for a long time, it has been continuously improved over the past time. One of the latest options offered by the technology is a device called 4-dimensional color ultrasound (4D) and as it can be understood from its name, it provides a realistic view of the image of the babies.

3d-and-4d-ultrasound

When to Take a 4-Dimensional Ultrasound?

Ultrasound is not normally a standard test. In other words, it is not compulsory to examine the fetus with ultrasound in every routine control.

Families often demand the removal of level 1 ultrasound. They want to see a clearer view of their babies, especially in the last months of pregnancy. So, they can understand who their babies look like, see how they yawn and smile. This gives families happiness.

Sometimes there may be a request by doctors to take color dopler test in pregnancy. The reason why doctors want this is to make sure the health of the baby, to see the possible problems in advance and to start the necessary treatments as soon as possible.

Is 4-Dimensional Ultrasound Useful?

Ultrasound can be expressed as a device that acquires images with sound waves. Therefore, it does not constitute any risk to the health of the mother and baby. 4-dimensional ultrasound, known to be harmless, has very important benefits. Baby control is at the top of these. With 3D ultrasound, the development of the fetus (baby), birth defects and amniotic fluid are examined.

As more detailed images are obtained with 4-dimensional ultrasound, the baby is examined in more detail. Therefore, examination of a specific condition, spinal cord problems, half-lips and similar fetal anomalies can be examined with 4D ultrasound.

The benefits provided by 4D ultrasound are not limited to the above. Apart from this, some benefits can be listed as follows:

  • Sex of the baby is determined earlier than the position
  • Detection of anomalies occurring in the placenta
  • Determination of placental location
  • Investigation of the causes of abnormal bleeding
  • uterine fibroids, polyps and tumor formations such as the detection of non-natural
  • Detailed examination of the baby's development
  • Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy too early
  • Detailed examination of the condition of babies in multiple pregnancies
  • Determination of structural problems in the uterus

ultrasound-in-pregnancy

Is 4-Dimensional Ultrasound Harmful?

As mentioned earlier, ultrasound is a device that acquires images with sound waves. Therefore, it is different from X-ray, MRI and similar imaging devices. These devices, which are reported to be completely harmless by experts, are not included in routine tests. Therefore, it usually depends on the demand and abnormal situations.

When to Take a 4-Dimensional Ultrasound?

It can be said that the operating system of 4-dimensional ultrasound test is relatively different from other ultrasounds. Therefore, it may not be possible to use this device at any time. It is very important that the baby's fluid is sufficient in order to obtain a clear image. This means that it can be used at 11-14 weeks at the earliest. It can be performed in addition to the routine checks performed especially at 11-13 and 18-22 weeks.

Things to Know About 4-Dimensional Ultrasound

4D ultrasounds can be expressed as the most advanced ultrasound devices. However, this does not mean that 4-dimensional devices will be completely sufficient. Because in 4-dimensional imaging, the general appearance of the baby can be seen in detail and in color. However, these devices remain inadequate after examining the internal organs. At this point, level 2 ultrasound imaging should be done again.

Different Types Of Ultrasound Screening

The first level ultrasound consists of the ultrasound performed on the territory to all the pregnant women.

The regional protocol foresees three echography:

The first trimester, at 10-13 weeks, aims to confirm the viability of the foetus and to date pregnancy, i.e. to establish whether the size of the foetus is compatible with the weeks of reported amenorrhea. Furthermore, in the evaluation of twin pregnancies, the determination of chronicity (= number of placentas) plays a fundamental role.

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The second trimester, at 18-22 weeks (morphological), aims to evaluate the anatomy of the foetus, according to the guidelines. The guidelines are directives that guarantee a quality standard (ie the operator is obliged to look at certain fundamental structures). The amount of amniotic fluid and the position of the placenta are also observed during the examination. Furthermore, the foetus is measured to check that growth is regular and that development proceeds normally.

The third trimester, at 30-34 weeks (growth), aims to assess foetal growth. The amount of amniotic fluid and the position of the placenta is also checked.

What is second level ultrasound?

The level 2 ultrasound is an ultrasound on indication that is aimed at solving a specific question. Local operators send the patient for more detailed control in a centre where more sophisticated ultrasound machines are available. The indications for the second level can be multiple:

  • Suspected malformation
  • Finding of soft markers
  • Control of foetal growth, if there is a suspicion of a defect or over-growth
  • Reduction or excess of amniotic fluid
  • Taking teratogenic drugs in pregnancy
  • Infection in pregnancy
  • Some maternal pathologies, for example insulin-dependent diabetes
  • Previous born with malformation
  • Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid

What is third-level ultrasound?

In the case where second level ultrasound has been confirmed as the existence of a malformation picture, the ultrasound evaluation will be performed by personnel who are particularly expert in the evaluation of anatomy and in the management of foetal pathology. This must be done in accordance with the most modern concepts of foetal medicine, and with the help of the most recent literature data.

The expert in foetal medicine (who is an obstetric doctor), performs the diagnosis and uses the advice of professionals of different specialties: geneticist, pediatric cardiologist, infectivologist, orthopedist, neurologist, pediatric surgeon (depending on the malformation highlighted), who they are called to complete prenatal counseling and to establish continuity of treatment after birth.

What is the minimal ultrasound?

The minimal ultrasound is that ultrasound check that simply aims to supplement the clinical examination. The parameters that can be evaluated include, for example, the display of the fetal heart rate, the amount of amniotic fluid and the fetal presentation (ie the position of the foetus in utero). The ultrasound clinic that performs “minimum” checks is not required to issue a report, but can record the result of this check in the patient's medical record. It is therefore important to point out that not all doctors who handle ultrasound probes are ultrasound scanners, and that a check carried out without issuing written reports IS NOT AND DOES NOT REPLACE an official ultrasound scan.

Second Screening During Pregnancy: How To Prepare And Decipher The Results

Nowadays, doctors refer to every pregnant woman to an ultrasound scan. The standard implies three ultrasound examinations, regardless of the presence of complaints, even if the fetus is rated as healthy.

The so-called perinatal screenings include, in addition to ultrasound, a biochemical blood test of the expectant mother. Why screening for 2 trimesters is needed, and what are the standards for ultrasound, how long it is performed and why - we will talk about this and another in this article.

When is ultrasound prescribed?

A screening pregnancy ultrasound is usually performed 3 times since it is customary to divide the gestation period into 3 trimesters.

The first screening is done from the 10th to the 14th week of pregnancy, and often only this study involves a double test: in addition to ultrasound, an analysis of the venous blood of a pregnant woman is performed.

The results of such a procedure with an accurate statistical probability determine how possible the development of dangerous abnormalities in the fetus.

Second ultrasound screening, as a rule, does not include other tests. The exception is a suspicion of pathology during the first study or women of the so-called risk groups. An ultrasound of 2 trimesters is done from the 18-20th to the 24th week from the last menstruation. Compliance with the exact terms is very important since if they are inconsistent, the interpretation of ultrasound is considered inaccurate.

And finally, the third screening corresponds to the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, performed from the 30th to the 34th week.

Who needs a second screening, and why?

Level 2 ultrasound cost in Delhi in our country is prescribed for every pregnant woman, regardless of the presence of complaints. But you should be especially careful with the study of pregnant women at risk.

  • First pregnant women over 35 years old;
  • Closely married persons;
  • Pregnant women with a burdened obstetric and gynaecological history;
  • Parents with alcoholism and drug addiction.

But all other expectant mothers should treat the second ultrasound screening responsibly so as not to miss the occurrence of a threatening pregnancy pathology at an early stage. Correspondence of the screening result and the ultrasound norm will allow the woman to feel calm, realizing that everything is in order with her and the child.

Decoding Of The Second Screening Of Ultrasound

In the second trimester, a pregnant woman is assigned a repeated screening, confirming or refuting the data obtained in the first comprehensive study. This period is most suitable for the diagnosis of hormonal levels of the fetus. The data obtained make it possible to assess its development.

If the expectant mother has to wait for a consultation of the attending physician for several days, she will certainly be interested in whether the results of the perinatal screening are normal in advance. It should be remembered that the doctor always judges the pathology only by the totality of the indicators of fetometry, and almost never takes anyone value into account.

Each child is individual even before birth. And if the future mother has really serious reasons for concern, then the ultrasound clinic will inform her about this immediately. Nevertheless, we will talk about the main indicators of the second screening and their normal values.

Body length and fetal weight

At the beginning of the second trimester, the embryo is growing very actively, and it is difficult to judge the standards. On average, the length of the fetus grows from 10 to 16 cm between the sixteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy. It is important to consider not an absolute indicator in centimeters, but an increase in growth by weeks. If the specialist is alert, the pregnant woman will be offered a second study after a week or two.

The fetal weight by ultrasound can only be determined using special formulas so that this value can be very inaccurate depending on the device, the doctor, and the posture of the baby in the womb. Weighing about 300 grams by the 20th week, all the organs of the baby are fully formed, and from 22 weeks or about 450 grams, a prematurely born baby can survive. It seems unbelievable!

The circumference of the abdomen and head

As well as the growth of the child, these important values ​​vary over a wide range and must strictly correspond to the gestational age. There are frequent cases when the “developmental delay” in practice turned out to be an incorrectly diagnosed gestational age. However, the widespread introduction of ultrasound diagnostics in the early stages has reduced the number of such errors.

Biparietal (BPR) and Frontooccipital Foetal head size

It is not surprising that the level 2 ultrasound of pathologies during pregnancy is based on head measurements in 3 projections. It is unlikely that at least one human organ is comparable in complexity and importance to the brain. Deviations from reference values ​​may indicate the formation of severe fetal malformations, such as anencephaly or dropsy of the brain. But as a rule, such diseases are judged by several repeated ultrasounds.

Bone length: lower leg, femur, humerus, and forearm

Some deviation from the norms indicated in the table for the weeks of pregnancy is permissible and can be determined by individual characteristics. The doctor will be warned by a sharp shortening of the entire limb or a different length of arms or legs in one child.

What Is Pregnancy Ultrasound? Why You Need To Do So?

During pregnancy, a lot of medical examinations are done to determine the health of the fetus and the mother. When you get pregnant, the doctor may ask you to have various blood tests and urine tests to understand the condition of your body, hormone, and other elements. The health of your baby depends on you, and hence it is important to go for a regular checkup and tests to ensure that everything is under control. Pregnancy Ultrasound is one such test that every mother should go through before the delivery to determine the good health and proper growth of her baby inside the uterus.

What Is Pregnancy Ultrasound

An ultrasound which is known as sonogram is a process to monitor fetal development and at the same time to screen if there are any abnormalities in the fetus.

Some Vital Points

Nevertheless, there are some vital points that you must know before you go for this test during your pregnancy.

•    If there is no reason or need, then the medical professionals always suggest that you should not go through this test during pregnancy.

•    You have to go to the best clinic for this test during pregnancy so that you can get an accurate report on time. Since it is the question of your unborn body; hence you should not take any chance.

•    To obtain the best result you must consume two or three glass of water just before the test and try to avoid urinating. This can make your abdomen look bigger and clearer than the normal time during the test, and the images come clearer.

Why You Should Have Pregnancy Ultrasound

There can be diverse reasons for having an ultrasound during pregnancy. Generally, there are two ultrasounds done during pregnancy tenure. However, if your doctor feels then he can advise some more ultrasounds. It is mainly done to see how the fetus is doing inside your womb. The doctor needs to monitor the growth of the fetus at a regular interval and determine if there is any medical attention required by the fetus for normal development.

The ultrasound is also done to understand if there are any difficulties or abnormalities in the abdomen or uterus of the mother that can affect the baby.

When This Test Should Be Done

Pregnancy Ultrasound should be done twice or in some special cases thrice to determine the development of the baby inside the mother.

The first ultrasound should be done during the first trimester, which is from week one to week 12. This is to:

•    Confirm pregnancy

•    Check the heartbeat of the fetus

•    Look for any kind of fetal abnormalities

•    Diagnose ectopic pregnancy

•    Check for multiple pregnancy

•    Determine the gestational age of the fetus

•    Calculate the EDD or estimated due date

The second ultrasound is done during the second or the third trimester of pregnancy to

•    Monitor the normal growth of the fetus

•    Confirm the presence of multiple fetuses inside the uterus

•    Determine the congenital abnormalities in the fetus

•    View the placenta to see if there is any issue

There are a lot of other things that can be confirmed, checked and determined because of this test. To get the information about the diagnostic centers around your locality, log on to www.3hcare.in and you can book your ultrasound online with facility to pay online or pay at center.

Level 1 & 2 Pregnancy Ultrasound Cost In Delhi NCR

Name of Test

Market Price

3Hcare Lowest Price

Level 1 Ultrasound Test Price in Delhi NCR

Rs. 1100.00

Rs. 600.00

Lower 2 Ultrasound Test Price in Delhi NCR 

Rs. 1800.00

Rs. 1200.00

What Is Level 1 Ultrasound in Pregnancy?

The first ultrasound of pregnancy is between 6 and 14 weeks and provides the first information on the embryo and its state of well-being. If carried out between 11 and 13 weeks, it can be combined with a blood test to estimate the risk of chromosomal diseases.

It is the first meeting, one of the most exciting, of the future parents with their baby. We talk about the first ultrasound, which is typically performed in the first trimester of pregnancy. If carried out early, around 6-7 weeks, what you see is only a "string bean" with a small beating heart.

This ultrasound is also known as obstetric ultrasound. Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of a baby (embryo or fetus) that is inside a pregnant woman, as well as the uterus and the mother's ovaries. It does not use ionizing radiations which has no harmful effects, and that's why it is the favored method for monitoring pregnant women and their unborn babies.

A Doppler ultrasound (a technique that evaluates blood flow in the umbilical cord, in the fetus, or in the placenta) may be part of this test.

This procedure does not require any special preparation. Because you only need to expose the area of the lower abdomen, it would be convenient to wear a loose, two-piece outfit. Leave the jewelry at home. Level 1 Ultrasound is safe and painless and produces images of the inside of the body using sound waves. Because ultrasound images are captured in real time, they can show the structure and movement of the internal organs of the body, as well as the blood that flows through the blood vessels.

Obstetric ultrasound provides images of an embryo or fetus inside a woman's uterus, as well as the uterus and the mother's ovaries.

During an obstetric ultrasound, the examiner can evaluate the blood flow in the umbilical cord or, in some cases, assess the blood flow in the fetus or placenta.

What Is Level 2 Ultrasound in Pregnancy? 

It is the study that is carried out with a high definition ultrasound equipment, counting with experienced doctors in the area, whose preparation allows them to know the normal development of the fetus in the different stages of pregnancy as well as the detection of abnormalities in its formation. In turn, they must perform a diagnostic integration, monitoring, prognosis, and treatment in these cases, which is a support for the treating physician.

The term 2nd level ultrasound refers to an examination on a particular indication for at-risk pregnancy, performed by a highly skilled operator with high-tech equipment, aimed at investigating the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities and evaluating fetal end-endemic growth, to the maternal-fetal hemodynamic control through the use of Doppler Velocimetry and to the monitoring of obstetric pathology.

For patients who request it, the examination can be completed by an ultrasound scan to screen for chromosomal abnormalities and a transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix for predicting premature delivery.

First Trimester

You didn’t get your period. You have sore breasts and you are tired. You get your pregnancy test done and find yourself to be pregnant. Good News!! You are pregnant and it’s time for you to get your blood test and an ultrasound done.

What should you expect during your examination?

When you’ll be six to eight weeks pregnant, your first ultrasound also called as the sonogram will be done. You should ask your doctor whether your bladder should be full for the test or not. Since sound waves are easily able to travel through the liquid, therefore, your bladder being full can make your ultrasound’s quality to be better.

At this stage your baby is very small therefore, your uterus and your Fallopian tube are close to your birth canal as compared to the abdomen, hence, your transvaginal test or TVS will be conducted so that your doctor can get a clearer picture.Don’t worry!! This test is absolutely painless.A thin wand like transducer probe transmitting sound waves of high frequency will be placed in your Vagina through your Uterus. These sound waves bounce off the fetus sending the signals back to the machine converting these bounced back reflections of the image of your baby. These images are black and white. A clearer picture will be seen after 13 weeks as the first snapshot of your baby will not give a very clear picture.

Importance of the First Trimester

After listening to the heartbeat of your baby, your doctor estimates the age of your baby by measuring the length of your baby from head to bottom. Since the baby is extremely small and is growing about a millimetre per day, therefore, your doctor will be able to find out the milestones during your pregnancy.This ultrasound will help your doctor rule out the possibility of a tubal or ectopic pregnancy. This pregnancy happens when your fetus starts growing in the Fallopian tube and not in the Uterus. Also, whether your pregnancy is with the multiples or not will be revealed by your doctor.

Second Trimester

After 18-20 weeks of your pregnancy, you are scheduled for a detailed ultrasound. This ultrasound will give you a good look at your baby.

What should you expect during examination?

This Ultrasound also called as the level 2 ultrasound anatomy scan will be held for about 25 to 45 minutes. This would happen only if you have one baby but if you have multiples, the time to be taken for this ultrasound might be more than 45 minutes. This is done by the doctor to ensure that all the organs of your baby are developing properly. Though this will give you a detailed picture of your developing child but only a doctor’s eye will be able to correctly distinguish between the Kidneys and the stomach. So, seek the help of your doctor or the technician who is doing the ultrasound for you to see the organs of your baby properly.

While you are made to lie on the examination table, your doctor would slather gel on your abdomen and then will use a plastic transducer on the belly. This would transmit sound waves of high frequency through your uterus. Believe me –it’s actually an amazing experience to see your child on the TV screen.

Importance of the Second Trimester

This would be the most thorough check up of your baby. The heart’s rate will be checked by the doctor. Also, if there are certain abnormalities persisting in the Heart, Liver, Brain and the Kidneys, the doctor will be able to diagnose. Your baby’s fingers and toes will be counted by the doctor, the birth defects will be checked, the Placenta will be examined and Amniotic fluid level will be measured. The technician or the doctor will also be able to determine the Sex of the baby. For getting the glimpse of your baby’s bone structure and the nose, you can even seek a 3-D view.

When the ultrasound of your baby is used for the medical purposes, it’s supposed to be extremely safe for you as well as your baby. You should only be careful with the person performing the ultrasound-it has to be a trained professional possessing ample experience for correctly interpreting the results and detecting abnormalities.

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