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Health Check-Ups That Smokers Must Take

Smokers are exposed to developing many more illnesses than non-smokers. So, to try to get your health under control and know how tobacco is affecting the body, you should carry out certain medical checks at best CT scan center in Delhi.

It is convenient that from the age of 40 regular medical check-ups are carried out to detect possible health problems early, especially if you have been smoking for a few years.

smokers-health-checkups

The most important basic checkup!

First of all, the most basic checkups should be taken. Anyone who needs health checkups (blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, etc.) or five cancer checkups (stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer) for cardiovascular risk factors should receive it. Ask for CBC with ESR cost in Delhi at diagnostic labs in Delhi before undergoing any health checkup.

Early check-up for lung cancer is needed because you are a smoker!

As a smoker, the most important checkup you should receive is whole PET CT scan in Delhi for 'lung cancer'. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is known to be about 23 times that of non-smokers.

The recommended annual checkups for smokers are:

-chest radiography

-analysis of blood and urine by KFT test

-electrocardiogram

-Mammography examination and vaginal cytology in women

It is important to go to the doctor once a year even if you do not have symptoms to do a complete checkup. This should be done above all by people with a family history of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and hypertension among other pathologies.

Vascular diseases are not overlooked

Smoking can cause coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease, the leading cause of death for adults. However, it can be diagnosed early through coronary artery CT scan, brain MRI / MRA, and carotid artery ultrasound test. One should always compare the cost of 3T brain MRI and MRI head cost in Delhi before finalizing any radiological procedure for himself.

In particular, in the case of coronary artery CT, diagnostic usefulness for coronary artery stenosis at a risk level is known to be four times higher in smokers than in the general public, and if such stenosis exists, progression can be prevented through active intervention such as stent insertion. In particular, when the risk factors of other cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are accompanied, the above test may be considered.

Health functional food

Many smokers take multivitamins or look for health supplements such as beta-carotene and tocopherols to prevent the health risks associated with smoking. However, many studies suggest that mortality with lung cancer due to smoking is common even with those people who were having multivitamins for years, so it is not recommended to take it unless it is a special case.

The most obvious preventive measures to quit smoking

It is common knowledge that smoking is bad, but in many cases, it is not easy to quit smoking despite the repeated decision to quit smoking every year. This is because smoking is not just a habit, but a disease called nicotine addiction. Effective drugs have been developed by medical experts to help quit smoking. Smoking cessation clinics are another alternative option that havehelped chronic smokers to quit smoking.

Early Diagnosis Of Chronic Kidney Disease By KFT

The awareness of kidney diseases has an undeniable pace in the prevention of disability problems due to increased deaths and non-communicable diseases (especially cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases) worldwide.

chronic-kidney-disease

What is chronic renal disease?

Chronic kidney disease occurs when there is a significant decrease in kidney function or glomerular filtration rate. This causes high blood pressure, anemia, heart and blood vessel diseases.

How often does chronic kidney disease occur?

Chronic kidney disease at any level is seen in 500 million people globally, in other words one in ten people.

Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease:

The most common causes of chronic renal disease in the world are nephrotic or hereditary disorders such as inflammatory diseases in the kidney, polycystic glomerular disease, infections and problems in the urinary system. These causes vary depending on diabetes and high blood pressure, which are the most common causes of cardiovascular disorders in developed and developing nations.

How to understand chronic kidney disease?

Kidney function test with blood and urine samples that measure creatinine value and glomerular filtration rate in the blood give an idea about the amount of damage done by disease. One should get complete information about CBC Test Cost before signing any medical document.

What are the results of Undiagnosed Chronic Kidney Disease?

The first risk is the loss of kidney function, which can lead to future kidney loss and dialysis or kidney transplant. Another risk is early deaths associated with cardiovascular diseases.

Individuals thought to be healthy but subsequently found to have chronic kidney disease are ten times higher than cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart failure, brain hemorrhage and vascular occlusion, environmental (peripheral) artery diseases)] regardless of the level of kidney disease. To avoid these illnesses, one should always compare KFT test cost and NCCT KUB cost in Delhi before undergoing any diagnosis.

What are the social cost and results of increasing common chronic renal disease?

End-stage kidney diseases are increasing rapidly, 1.5 million people worldwide can survive by hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation. It is expected that this number will double in the next 10 years. It is estimated that the total cost of dialysis and kidney transplantation will increase to 1 trillion USD in the next 10 years.

What can be done to prevent and treat chronic kidney and cardiovascular disease?

In order to detect chronic kidney disease, KFT Test, serum creatinine, NCCT KUB test, calculated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin tests are available.

The vast majority of people with early chronic renal disorder have not been revealed. Early determination of kidney function decline is essential, ensuring appropriate treatment to prevent kidney damage or kidney decay / deterioration from manifesting itself through other complications.

Prevention

DTPA renal scan should be performed first when there is a high risk of kidney risk. These are:

  1. They are over 50 years old.
  2. Family with diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney disease.
  3. People with other types of renal disease.
  4. Preservation treatments, which are still being applied, should also be applied in patients with early renal failure.
  5. ACE inhibitor ARB group drugs in blood pressure lowering drugs decrease protein-urea while at the same time decreasing the glomerular filtration rate.
  6. Lowering of high blood pressure; low blood pressure lowers the glomerular filtration rate.
  7. Control of blood sugar, blood fats and anemia.
  8. Patients with diabetes and high blood pressure.
  9. Smoking cessation.
  10. Obese and smokers
  11. Increased physical activity.
  12. Control of body weight.
Renal Failure And Diagnosis

The acute and chronic kidney diseases, arterial hypertension and diabetes, as well as the prolonged use of certain medications and intoxication by some heavy metals, can irreversibly damage the kidneys and lead to a ' renal insufficiency. Any significant kidney damage that lasts more than three months and does not recede with the treatment can be considered chronic, therefore, what we call chronic renal failure is the effect of a progressive and slow decline in the ability of the kidneys to filter the blood and purify it from the waste products of the body's metabolism, especially that of protein substances.

Causes of Renal Failure

Among the causes of renal failure, the most serious are currently diabetes and arterial hypertension because, if not properly controlled, they cause a rapid decrease in renal function.  But they are not the only ones. Among the causes of chronic kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure, we also find:

  • The glomerulonephritis and acute and conical pyelonephritis - inflammation of the small renal blood vessels (glomeruli) and the small tubes (tubules) through which the urine passes to be eliminated
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract often with pyelonephritis, or a strong inflammation that involves all the urinary tract and the kidney itself
  • Autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), in which antirene antibodies irreversibly damage the organ
  • Some renal anomalies such as the presence of polycystic kidney disease.

As a result of these diseases there is an accumulation of waste substances or waste from the metabolism which lead first to the increase in the concentration of nitrogen (azotemia) and other substances in the blood, compromising its optimal balance and making it more acidic. This causes numerous other ailments that we will now see.

The blood and urine tests are essential to confirm the presence of poor renal function." In particular, for the complete diagnosis of renal insufficiency we perform:

Blood and urinary tests

Renal ultrasound test

Possible renal biopsy, KFT (Kidney function test), or the removal of a tissue sample from a kidney for examination (it could be the most accurate test, but it is not advisable if the results of an ultrasound examination show that the kidneys are small and with scars).

Urinalysis can detect the presence of proteins, abnormal cells and other problems. Azotaemia and above all, creatininemia (which analysescreatine, a substance contained in the muscles, present in the blood) are the best indicators for assessing the degree of renal failure (based on renal filtration capacity). Furthermore, there may be other blood changes- such as increased potassium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone in the blood, decrease in calcium, calcitriol and vitamin.

The ultrasound, which is done to exclude an obstruction or abnormality of the urinary tract and to verify the size of the kidneys, shows, in chronic renal insufficiency, the shrinking and irregularity of the kidney.

Having identified symptoms and diagnoses of chronic renal failure, we now want to understand what the consequences for the body are.

Renal Failure And Its Treatment

When the kidney function test is made, it is imperative to protect the kidneys already affected. The goal is to avoid or delay the progression of the disease to chronic renal failure or end-stage renal failure. Simple therapeutic measures prevent the degradation of these organs. Discover them!

Controlling hypertension and proteinuria

Diseases that affect the blood vessels also damage the kidneys. As such, hypertension is particularly important to watch, as is proteinuria. These two factors being modifiable, their modification is at the heart of the care.

Treat the impact of kidney failure

But kidney failure will also cause metabolic disorders. The most common is anaemia (a decrease in the number of red blood cells), a source of fatigue that can really handicap the quality of life of patients. Alteration of the kidneys has other consequences- they are now unable to produce the hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), essential for the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. Since about fifteen years, this problem can be treated thanks to a synthetic version this hormone. With this product, it is possible to maintain in the patient a normal socio-professional activity.

In addition, kidney failure will cause metabolic disorders by increasing the level of phosphorus in the blood and decreasing that of calcium. Faced with this problem, the body reacts by soliciting the parathyroid glands (link to the glossary) that will mobilize calcium from the bones, weakening them. To counter this effect, calcium, vitamin D or calcimimetics may be prescribed. Finally, if the reduction in dietary phosphorus intake is not enough, phosphorus may be indicated, they prevent the digestive absorption of phosphorus contained in food.

In all cases, patients with kidney disease should be vigilant for drugs, some of which may be toxic to weakened kidneys. They must therefore discuss their situation with all the doctors they are called upon to consult, as well as with their pharmacist.

Such hygiene and dietary measures and drug treatment can push back several years, or sometimes avoid the end stage of the disease. But whatever its risk factors, the patient suffering from renal insufficiency must be a full participant in its management by respecting these rules of common sense (cessation of the tobacco, fight against the sedentary lifestyle, depleted regime of materials fat and sugar etc.) and scrupulously following his treatment despite the absence of annoying symptoms.

Today it is possible to slow down or even stop kidney failure. When you start early, identify kidney disease and undergo a kidney function test. Very often we can block the evolution of the disease. as well as every year we go when we are well, we lose between 0.5 and 1% of renal function, so when we have a slight renal insufficiency, it progresses a little bit, but what we want is is to avoid progression to the final stage that requires dialysis, and we get there quite often.

Kidney Diseases And Their Tests

Kidney diseases evolve silently. Hence the importance of regularly performing blood and urine tests to check that his kidneys are working well. What are the different renal function parameters that appear on the test results? And what is the use of over-the-counter urinary strips in pharmacies?

The man being endowed with two kidneys, one can fall sick without being aware of it. This poorly known organ has the main function of eliminating the waste present in our blood. How to know if it works well? How to spot the first signs of kidney failure?

Although we rarely worry about it, our kidneys are just as important as our heart or our lungs. They are, in a way, the "treatment plant" but also the regulation of the human body: their main function is to eliminate waste in our blood. Every minute, about a litre of blood reaches the kidneys to be purified, before coming out and going back into the general circulation.

How can I know if I have kidney disease?

In general, kidney disease in its initial stage has no symptoms. The only way to know how well your kidneys are working is to be tested. Have a kidney function test if you suffer from:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease
  • Family history of kidney failure

If you have diabetes, get checked every year. If you suffer from high blood pressure, heart disease, or have a family history of kidney failure, talk with your doctor about how often you should be evaluated. The sooner you know that you have kidney disease, the sooner you can get treatment to help protect your kidneys.

Doctors assess renal functionality by analyzing blood and urine samples.

When the rate of renal filtration decreases markedly, the concentration of creatinine (a waste product) in the blood increases. The clearance or clearance of creatinine (a more accurate test) is established from a blood sample using a formula that relates the value of blood creatinine to the person's age, weight, and sex. In order to determine creatinine clearance more accurately, it is necessary to plan in detail the timing of urine collection with respect to blood creatinine determination.

The cystatin C, a protein of the blood, is also sometimes measured as an indicator of renal function. The concentration of urea nitrogen in blood (BUN, BUN for short) can also indicate the efficiency of kidney function, but many other factors can alter the concentration.

EVALUATION OF RENAL FUNCTION EVEN AFTER DIAGNOSIS

DTPA renal scan should be performed periodically even after diagnosis, for disease control. Those most in use are urinary creatinine, to estimate any worsening of renal disease, urinary nitrogen and sodium, the Emogas Analysis, and the so-called BNP examination (Type B Natriuretic Peptide).

The latter serves to assess the person's state of hydration and its variations over time. It is very useful for monitoring the health of the nephropathy. By periodically checking the progress of kidney failure and following the advice of one's doctors with rationality, it is possible to slow down the course of the disease, maintaining a satisfying lifestyle.

X-Ray Of The Kidneys With Contrast

X-ray of the kidneys is a radiation research method designed to assess the anatomical structure and functional state of the urinary system. One of the most common methods for examining patients with suspected urolithiasis.

What is it like?

The method is based on the ability of X-rays to pass through body tissues, the degree of darkening (the so-called "shadow") in the finished image depends on the degree of density. Given the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on the body, the intensity of the rays is strictly dosed, and the procedure is carried out by ultrasound clinics only for medical reasons.

X-ray of the kidneys: indications for examination:

  • Urolithiasis or suspicion of it
  • Chronic kidney disease (to monitor and control treatment)
  • Diagnosis of tumors, metastases
  • Pelvic and lumbar injuries
  • Postoperative control
  • Significant deviations in the analysis of urine: hematuria (blood in the urine), proteinuria (protein), pathological changes in the smell, color, density, and transparency of urine
  • Pain of characteristic localization (lumbar region and lower abdomen), renal colic
  • Painful urination
  • Suspected urinary obstruction (obstruction), urinary retention, swelling of the eyelids and face
  • Hypertension
  • Ultrasound Refinement

X-ray (urography) of the kidneys: types of research

A panoramic x-ray of the kidneys- a picture in direct projection without contrast medium; allows you to evaluate the location, shape, and number of kidneys, the condition of the skeletal system of nearby areas, large foci of inflammation, necrosis, tumors, large calcium calculi

Excretory urography- an x-ray of the kidneys with a contrast agent; allows you to evaluate the excretory (excretory) functions of the kidneys: the state of the pyelocaliceal system, the integrity, and patency of the urinary tract; performed in 2 or more projections.

Infusion urography- radiography with an intravenous drip injection of contrast for a detailed study of the kidney parenchyma (body)

Direct pyelography- injection of contrast through a catheter from the lower urinary tract or through a nephropielostomy directly into the kidney; performed in a hospital

Contrast urography

The most informative, simple, and inexpensive research method. It can be performed on an outpatient basis - immediately after the procedure, the patient goes home. The main advantage is the introduction of an iodine-based contrast agent, which, as it is filtered by the glomerular system and excreted through the urinary tract, highlights various areas in the picture.

What does kidney radiography show?

The kidney function test allows you to determine:

  • Anatomical features of the structure of the organ: quantity, location, shape, size, uniformity, integrity
  • Functional features: rate of filtration and excretion of the substance, filling of the pyelocaliceal system inside the kidney, diameter, and patency of the urinary tract
  • Foreign inclusions: the presence of calcifications and stones (stones)- oxalates, carbonates, phosphates, clearly visible in the picture, crystals of salts ("sand"), damaging foreign particles (bone fragments after an injury, fragments)
  • The tumor, its size, prevalence, the presence of metastases, the size of the lymph nodes

How is the procedure going?

The patient is injected with a contrast medium, after which 3 pictures are taken at strictly defined time intervals: the first - 5-7 minutes after administration, the second- 15-17 minutes, and the third- 20-23. In this way, the picture captures the contrast in the pyelocaliceal system, then in the ureter and, finally, in the bladder.

Nephropathy: Kidney Damage In Diabetes

The kidneys perform vital tasks in the human body. One of them is the formation of urine (urine). With this, the organism eliminates toxins and waste products of the metabolism, which filter the blood from urine. Also, the nephrons are involved in the control of the salt and water balance, affect the blood pressure and secrete essential hormones like erythropoietin for the formation of RBC’s.

Diabetes damages tiny vessels in the kidneys

For the filtration process, countless small balls of blood vessels are responsible, the kidney corpuscles. Persistently elevated blood sugar in diabetes damages the inner walls of blood vessels of these nephric filters. This permanently affects the filtering performance of the kidneys. Kidney function test can help you in checking the severity of renal damage.

This kidney damage, also called diabetic nephropathy, is favored by other typical side effects of diabetes. These include high blood pressure and lipid metabolism disorders. These not only promote the development of nephropathy but also accelerate their progression.

Kidney failure threatens

If nephropathy is too late or left untreated, the kidneys may fail their service. In the advanced stage of such renal insufficiency, patients are referred for a lifelong regular blood wash (dialysis) or kidney transplantation.

Kidney damage can occur at an early stage of diabetes and initially causes no discomfort. Symptoms usually show up only when the kidneys are already severely impaired. The best idea is to go for DPTA renal scan if you experience any pain during urination.

Diagnosis of diabetic kidney damage

Elevated urinary albumin levels may indicate diabetic kidney damage. A doctor can detect the protein in the laboratory based on a morning urine sample. If the albumin-creatinine quotient determined in this case is more than 30 mg albumin / g creatinine in women and more than 20 mg albumin / g creatinine in men, there is a suspicion of albuminuria and thus kidney damage. Since the albumin levels are subject to natural fluctuations and may be increased for reasons other than nephropathy, a second test must confirm the result. If there is no increased concentration, a third sample is necessary.

If KFT test confirms the suspicion of kidney damage, the doctor may initiate further investigations to make a more accurate diagnosis. The sooner diabetic nephropathy is recognized, the better are the chances of treatment. People with diabetes should, therefore, have their urine tested for protein once a year. In type 1 diabetes from the fifth year of illness, in type 2 diabetes from the time of diagnosis. After all, the latter type of diabetes has been causing unnatural damage in the body for many years until a doctor discovers it.

Other organs endangered

If there is evidence of kidney damage, sufferers should be thoroughly examined. On one hand, there may be a number of causes that require treatment - even those that have nothing to do with diabetes. On the other hand, in diabetic nephropathy often vessels in other areas of the body are damaged, so there may be more complications. Especially the eyes are often affected. But heart, vessels or legs should be checked.

For therapy, the doctor prescribes preferably drugs from the group of ACE inhibitors or AT1 blockers in case of intolerance. Well-adjusted values for blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids can also help prevent further damage to the vessels.

When Do I Need to Undergo a LFT ?

Liver testing for diseases is also carried out during pregnancy (ideally at the planning stage), before surgery and a course of treatment involving the administration of potent drugs.

When can an LFT test be required? It is recommended to regularly examine the most important organs and systems of the body for prophylactic purposes. But there are a number of symptoms that signal that verification is required as quickly as possible. Thus, the liver should be examined immediately if you notice the following signs of organ dysfunction:

Discomfort in the lower pair of ribs on the right is one of the first manifestations of liver problems. Barely noticeable nagging pains, tingling may accompany unusual sensations and a feeling of constriction or overcrowding in the area of the liver. Usually, they make themselves felt when laughing, talking loudly or shouting, sneezing, sharp sideways, lifting weights, as well as after eating fatty, smoked, fried or spicy foods. At first, a new feeling may not cause pain or tangible discomfort- in this case; they also say: “I found out where the liver is.” This is a reason to be wary, because even mild symptoms may indicate the initial stage of the serious hepatic disease.

The liver is enlarged. The change in the dimensions of the main gland is accurately recorded by ultrasound, but you can notice the changes yourself. This will indicate a bulging belly without an increase in overall fullness and with virtually no weight gain. The especially noticeable symptom in people with thin physique.

Unpleasant taste in the mouth. Patients with chronic liver problems have a constant dry mouth and bitterness on the tongue, sometimes with a characteristic flavor that is defined as “copper.” At the same time, an astringent feeling is noted in the mouth; taste sensations are reduced. Habitual food can cause rejection, even nausea and the urge to vomit.

Weight loss on the background of the asthenic syndrome. This symptom is largely a consequence of the previous one. Food rejection, loss of taste, nausea lead to a decrease in diet, which leads to weight loss. At the same time, the patient complains of unreasonable irritability, as well as weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, because the body's energy requirements are not met, and the toxic effects of impaired nitrogenous (protein) metabolism greatly increase- with an increased concentration of ammonia in the blood, secondary (hepatic) hyperammonemia occurs.

Jaundice is a common complex of symptoms, which is expressed in the yellowness of the skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes, as well as in dark urine, itching, and peeling of the skin, in chills, bone, and joint pain, and is caused by problems with the liver.

What does a liver function test reveal?

  • The fact of the disease, its degree, the level of liver failure;
  • The presence and degree of histological (cellular) changes in the structure of the liver tissue, such as fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Diagnosis of specific liver diseases - viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty hepatosis.

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