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Diagnostic Imaging Of The Chest

Imaging includes X-ray, MRI, scintigraphy and ultrasound examinations.

There are no absolute contraindications for carrying out diagnostic procedures for non-invasive images except for MRI. The presence of metal objects inside the patient's eyes or brain precludes MRI.

The presence of a permanent pacemaker or internal defibrillator is a relative contraindication. In addition, gadolinium, when used as a contrast agent for MRI, increases the risk of systemic nephrogenic fibrosis in patients with chronic 4th or 5th stage kidney disease.

imaging-of-the-chest

X-Ray techniques

X-ray investigations used for chest imaging include chest X-ray, fluoroscopy, high resolution, and multilayer CT and angio-CT.

Chest X-ray

Chest x-ray examination and fluoroscopy are used to obtain images of the lungs and nearby anatomical structures. The chest radiograph provides images relating to internal and external structures in the chest and is very useful to identify any cardiac abnormalities, parenchymal lung, pleura, chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinal and lung ILI. Usually, it is the survey that is first done to study the lungs.

Computed tomography

CT displays the intrathoracic structures and abnormalities more clearly than a standard chest x-ray can. Conventional (planar) CT provides multiple images of cross-sections of the chest, 10 mm thick. Its main advantage is the wide availability. The disadvantages are represented by the movement artifacts and by the limited resolution in the volume of fabric included in a 10 mm slice.

The spiral CT provides multiplanar images of the entire thorax acquired during apnea of 8-10 seconds while the patient is being moved in a continuous manner in the gantry of the CT. Spiral CT is considered at least equivalent to conventional CT for most applications. Before having a CT scan, it is recommended to know the CT scan cost in south Delhi. Its main advantages are speed, less exposure to radiation and the possibility of reconstructing the images on the 3 floors. The software can also generate images of the bronchial mucosa (virtual bronchoscopy).

Magnetic resonance

MRI has a relatively limited role in lung imaging but is preferred over CT in specific circumstances (e.g., for the evaluation of neoplasms of the upper sulcus, possible cysts and indissociable lesions from the chest wall). In patients with suspicion of pulmonary embolism in whom IV contrast agents cannot be used, MRI can sometimes identify coarse proximal emboli, but normally its use is very limited in this pathology.

The advantages of MRI are the absence of radiation exposure for patients, the excellent visualization of vascular structures, the lack of bone artifacts and the excellent contrast of soft tissues.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound is often used to facilitate certain procedures such as thoracentesis and the insertion of central venous catheters. Ultrasound is also very useful for assessing the presence and extent of pleural effusions and is now commonly used to guide thoracentesis to the patient's bed. Ultrasound performed on the patient's bed is becoming common to diagnose pneumothorax.

The biopsy endobronchial ultrasound-guided is increasingly being used in combination with fiber optic bronchoscopy to better locate masses and enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnostic yield of endo-bronchial ultrasound compared to conventional unguided techniques is higher as regards the transbronchial aspiration of the lymph nodes.

Using The CT Method (Computed Tomography) In The Diagnosis Of Oncology

To detect the presence of cancer cells in the body, there are several modern methods of examination. One of them is computed tomography. With the help of this instrumental study, it is possible not only to identify oncology, but also to find its individual foci (metastases), as well as other pathological processes.

diagnosis-of-oncology

Metastases quickly spread throughout the body, affecting various parts of it. With the help of CT, one can detect both volumetric neoplasms and the smallest cancers. What is good about this study is that the image transmitted by the tomograph will allow you to examine any type of tissue - from soft to bone.

Why is it important to use computed tomography to diagnose cancer? Because the device will show the formation of any size - up to several millimeters. Thanks to such a detailed diagnosis, the oncologist has a unique opportunity to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment. The CT scan price in Delhi varies according to the type of CT scan that is to be conducted.

The effectiveness of computed tomography has been proven in the study of such systems and organs as:

  • Lungs, bronchi;
  • Brain;
  • Pelvic organs;
  • Spine and other parts of the skeleton;
  • Blood vessels;
  • Skin integument, subcutaneous tissue;
  • Abdominal organs;
  • Lymph nodes.

When is computed tomography prescribed?

The CT method is effective in examining most organs and systems of the human body. Indications for examination are many pathological changes. So, it is necessary to carry out:

Brain tomography under the assumption of hemorrhagic stroke, vascular pathologies, neoplasms in the brain and meninges, hematomas (with the specification of their location). If the patient has a history of malformation or vascular aneurysm, CT scan is necessary. Before undergoing a CT scan, it is good to know the CT scan cost in south Delhi first.

  • CT of the head (cranial box) - in case of severe contusion, developmental abnormality, skull fracture, suspected cyst and other formation. The picture will allow the doctor to assess the patient’s condition and help to decide on the need for surgical intervention.
  • Computed tomography of the larynx, nose - if there is concern about the presence of a tumor, chronic sinusitis, and inflammation of the lacrimal flows.
  • Tomography of the lungs - to determine the presence of focal and pathological neoplasms, pneumonia, emphysema, etc.
  • CT of the chest - with suspected pathology in the organs located in the chest cavity: pleura, lungs, bronchi, esophagus, heart, lymph nodes.
  • Computed tomography of the spine - in difficult cases, to clarify the diagnosis. Indications for CT - scoliosis, trauma, osteoporosis, leg pain, intervertebral hernia, damage to the vertebrae and discs, osteochondrosis.
  • Tomography of the abdominal cavity - to determine the presence of cysts and their size, pancreatitis, blood clots, inflammation, appendicitis, fluid accumulation, pathological changes. This examination is indispensable for suspected neoplasms.
  • CT of the joints (shoulder, hip, knee) - to determine the cause of pain in the joint during movement, the accumulation of fluid in it. Such a study is carried out when the patient is suspected of developing arthrosis, arthritis, as well as to determine the degree of pathological changes in the joints.
  • Computer tomography of the genitourinary system - with suspected cancer in the bladder, kidneys.
  • CT of the intestine - to establish the cause of the problems in this organ.
Tests To Detect Oesophageal Cancer

Usually, oesophageal cancers are discovered when a person has signs or symptoms. If oesophageal cancer is suspected, studies and tests will be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. If cancer is discovered, additional tests will be performed to help determine the extent of cancer.

Medical history and physical exam

If you have symptoms of oesophageal cancer, the doctor will ask questions about your medical history to analyze possible risk factors and learn more about the symptoms.

Your doctor will also do a test to detect possible signs of oesophageal cancer and other medical problems. The doctor will probably pay special attention to your neck and chest areas.

If the test results are abnormal, your doctor will probably order tests to help find the problem. You may also be asked to contact a gastroenterologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive system) for further tests and treatment.

Imaging studies to find oesophageal cancer

The imaging using sound waves, X-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive imaging inside the body substances. Imaging studies can be done for many reasons, such as:

  • Help find a suspicious area that could be cancer
  • Know if cancer has spread, and if so, how far
  • Help determine if the treatment is effective
  • Detect possible signs of cancer returning after treatment

Study with barium intake

In this test, the patient swallows a thick, limestone fluid called barium that covers the walls of the esophagus. When x-rays are taken, barium delineates the esophagus. This test can be done alone or as part of a series of x-rays that include the stomach and part of the intestine, called x-rays of the upper gastrointestinal tract. A barium intake test can show any abnormal area on the normally uniform surface of the inner lining of the esophagus, but cannot be used to determine how far cancer has spread outside the esophagus.

CT scan

A CT (computed tomography, CT) uses x - rays to produce detailed cross-sectionall images of the body. This study can help determine if oesophageal cancer has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes (bean-shaped groups of immune system cells where cancers often spread first) or to distant parts of the body. Before conducting the study, you may be asked to drink approximately 1 to 2 pints (between half and one liter) of a liquid called oral contrast. This helps to delineate the esophagus and intestines. If you are having trouble swallowing, you should inform your doctor before the CT. Before having a CT scan, it is essential to know CT scan cost in south Delhi.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Like computed tomography (CT), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) provides detailed images of soft tissues. However, MRIs use powerful radio waves and magnets instead of X-rays. To better show the details, a contrast material, called gadolinium, may be injected into a vein before the study is done. MRI can be used to see abnormal areas in the brain and spinal cord that may be due to the spread of cancer.

Positron emission tomography

Generally, the positron emission tomography (positron emission tomography, PET) uses a form of radioactive sugar (known as fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG) is injected into the blood. Normal cells use different amounts of sugar, depending on how fast they are growing. Cancer cells, which grow rapidly, are more likely to absorb larger amounts of radioactive sugar than normal cells. These areas of radioactivity can be seen on a PET CT scan using a special camera.

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