Regardless of the context of discovery, a number of investigations must be performed to confirm the diagnosis of lung cancer and evaluate its stage.
The diagnostic balance is based mainly on:
- A clinical examination- The objective of the clinical examination is to make an assessment of your general condition using various means such as performance status, to identify your medical history and the pathologies you suffer from, to list your current treatments, your risk factors and your smoking addiction, if you smoke, to assess the possible frailty of elderly patients using specific questionnaires and scales.
- A chest x-ray- The purpose of this examination is to reveal the presence of abnormalities in the lungs. However, the X-ray does not make it possible to determine whether an abnormality discovered is benign or malignant. And, moreover, it does not always detect an anomaly, even if it is actually present in the lung.
- A chest scanner- It is a question of identifying the presence or absence of an anomaly and, if so, its size and location. This examination detects anomalies even of very small size (less than or equal to 3 millimeters). The scanner gives no indication of the type of cells in question. In the case of lung cancer, the CT scan done by the best CT scan centre in Delhi can identify if the nearby lymph nodes are abnormally large. But it does not make it possible to specify whether or not they are affected by cancer cells. Before going to have a CT scan, it is important to know the chest CT scan cost in Delhi.
- Biopsy. The biopsy makes it possible to recover tissue samples that seem abnormal for analysis and to determine whether they are of a cancerous nature or not. These samples can also be stored after the operation in a tumor library (tumor library) for further research.
- In some situations, it is not possible, before treatment, to obtain a histological diagnosis, which requires an analysis of tissues taken from the tumor. This is then performed during the surgical procedure. The operation then has a diagnostic and therapeutic purpose.
The bronchoscopy is the key diagnostic for lung cancers. It allows doctors to observe the inner wall of the trachea and bronchi, as well as to take samples at the level of suspicious lesions (biopsy).
These tissue samples are then analyzed under a microscope to confirm or deny the nature of the lesions. In the case of proven cancer, it is then possible to determine which tumor subtype is detected and thus to choose the most appropriate treatment.
Specifically, a flexible tube containing a miniature camera and sampling instruments is introduced into the bronchi, via the trachea and the patient's nose.
The examination is unpleasant, but it is not painful because it is performed under local anesthesia. It lasts 10 to 20 minutes. It is necessary to be fasting for at least two hours before the beginning of fibroscopy.
Due to the (low) risk of hemorrhage associated with the examination, it is recommended that you do not take aspirin within 10 days of the exam. People on anticoagulant therapy should report it.