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Using The CT Method (Computed Tomography) In The Diagnosis Of Oncology

To detect the presence of cancer cells in the body, there are several modern methods of examination. One of them is computed tomography. With the help of this instrumental study, it is possible not only to identify oncology, but also to find its individual foci (metastases), as well as other pathological processes.

diagnosis-of-oncology

Metastases quickly spread throughout the body, affecting various parts of it. With the help of CT, one can detect both volumetric neoplasms and the smallest cancers. What is good about this study is that the image transmitted by the tomograph will allow you to examine any type of tissue - from soft to bone.

Why is it important to use computed tomography to diagnose cancer? Because the device will show the formation of any size - up to several millimeters. Thanks to such a detailed diagnosis, the oncologist has a unique opportunity to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment. The CT scan price in Delhi varies according to the type of CT scan that is to be conducted.

The effectiveness of computed tomography has been proven in the study of such systems and organs as:

  • Lungs, bronchi;
  • Brain;
  • Pelvic organs;
  • Spine and other parts of the skeleton;
  • Blood vessels;
  • Skin integument, subcutaneous tissue;
  • Abdominal organs;
  • Lymph nodes.

When is computed tomography prescribed?

The CT method is effective in examining most organs and systems of the human body. Indications for examination are many pathological changes. So, it is necessary to carry out:

Brain tomography under the assumption of hemorrhagic stroke, vascular pathologies, neoplasms in the brain and meninges, hematomas (with the specification of their location). If the patient has a history of malformation or vascular aneurysm, CT scan is necessary. Before undergoing a CT scan, it is good to know the CT scan cost in south Delhi first.

  • CT of the head (cranial box) - in case of severe contusion, developmental abnormality, skull fracture, suspected cyst and other formation. The picture will allow the doctor to assess the patient’s condition and help to decide on the need for surgical intervention.
  • Computed tomography of the larynx, nose - if there is concern about the presence of a tumor, chronic sinusitis, and inflammation of the lacrimal flows.
  • Tomography of the lungs - to determine the presence of focal and pathological neoplasms, pneumonia, emphysema, etc.
  • CT of the chest - with suspected pathology in the organs located in the chest cavity: pleura, lungs, bronchi, esophagus, heart, lymph nodes.
  • Computed tomography of the spine - in difficult cases, to clarify the diagnosis. Indications for CT - scoliosis, trauma, osteoporosis, leg pain, intervertebral hernia, damage to the vertebrae and discs, osteochondrosis.
  • Tomography of the abdominal cavity - to determine the presence of cysts and their size, pancreatitis, blood clots, inflammation, appendicitis, fluid accumulation, pathological changes. This examination is indispensable for suspected neoplasms.
  • CT of the joints (shoulder, hip, knee) - to determine the cause of pain in the joint during movement, the accumulation of fluid in it. Such a study is carried out when the patient is suspected of developing arthrosis, arthritis, as well as to determine the degree of pathological changes in the joints.
  • Computer tomography of the genitourinary system - with suspected cancer in the bladder, kidneys.
  • CT of the intestine - to establish the cause of the problems in this organ.
What Are The Causes Of Chest Pain?

Pain in the chest is one of the most important symptoms of a number of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Chest pains can be caused by pathology not only of the heart, but also of other organs and tissues of the chest, and also caused by diseases of the abdominal organs.

causes-of-chest-pain

Timely differential diagnosis of chest pain requires a doctor with sufficient theoretical knowledge and knowledge of the methods for examining patients at the CT scan centre. Chest pain may appear in a previously healthy person for the first time in their life.

In other cases, the patient develops pains of a different nature than before, and this may be due to the progression of an existing disease or the appearance of its complications.

The most important characteristics for differential diagnosis of chest pain: factors that provoke pain, localization of pain, duration, depth, circumstances of pain relief, as well as some other specific features of the pain syndrome. You should first know the chest CT scan cost in Delhi, before going to have a CT scan.

Provocative factors

When collecting an anamnesis, it is necessary to determine the dependence of the occurrence of pain on various circumstances and situations in which the pain begins to bother the patient or intensifies.

  • With an attack of angina pectoris, pain often occurs during exercise.
  • Pain characteristic of pericarditis occurs with a change in body position and deep breathing.
  • For pleural pain with pneumonia, pneumothorax, pleurisy, a connection with breathing is also characteristic.
  • With peptic ulcer and esophageal reflux, the relationship of pain with food intake (on an empty stomach), time of day (at night), and body position (lying) is important.
  • With esophagospasm, chest pain often occurs during exercise or after a cold drink, but can also be spontaneous.
  • Pain in vertebral hernias is often aggravated by movement of the head and neck and palpation, which is also characteristic of musculoskeletal pain.

 Pain localization

The sternal pain localization characteristic of IHD is also observed in diseases of the esophagus, in case of hyperventilation, and pulmonary hypertension. Against the background of the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, pains are often localized in the lower part of the sternum and in the epigastrium. Pain with stratified aortic aneurysm often radiates to the back or lumbar region.

The basic principles of medical tactics for acute chest pain

  • With any nature of the pain syndrome, an electrocardiographic study is performed to exclude the most formidable pathology - acute myocardial infarction.
  • Patients who are in doubt about the diagnosis, aged over 40 - 50 years old with intense pain in the chest (even atypical nature of angina pectoris), before the diagnosis is clarified, it is advisable to be hospitalized,

In all cases, it is necessary to strive for the maximum removal of the pain syndrome. Naturally, the relief of pain is carried out taking into account its pathogenesis and should be only part of the complex therapy of a known or suspected underlying disease.

Is It Possible To Do CT And MRI For Children?

Imagine that a doctor prescribes your child to undergo a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Most likely, you are, first of all, thinking about the possible risks: will this or that research harm the children's organism? How will the child take them?

Is there a danger?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an absolutely safe method of research, since it does not use ionizing radiation sources. There is no reason to worry about the hypothetical harm to the child from this type of diagnosis. When conducting computed tomography (CT), X-rays are used, so the concerns of the parents are well founded. But in the medical organizations of the Moscow Department of Health, special pediatric research protocols are used, which allow reducing the radiation dose to the minimum harmless values. Therefore, this procedure does not have any negative impact.

Is it possible to replace a CT scan with a safer MRI?

MRI and CT are two different methods of radiation diagnosis, which are not always interchangeable. They give different information about the state of health, so the question of what kind of research to conduct a child is decided directly by the attending physician or radiologist. The greatest harm to health is caused not by a microdose of X-rays, but by insufficient diagnostics.

Is it necessary to give children anesthesia during CT and MRI?

During CT and especially MRI, it is very important that the child remains stationary throughout the procedure; otherwise, the results will not be accurate or not suitable for analysis. The MRI procedure takes an average of 20-30 minutes, which means that the child will have to lie motionless all this time. As practice shows, children 5-6 years and older do an excellent job with this task. But earlier patients are difficult to maintain immobility.

For children under 3 years old, CT and MRI are performed only in a hospital, under the supervision of specialists. Before the study, the child is given a sedative or mild inhalation anesthesia, after which he wakes up quickly and easily.

CT and MRI with contrast enhancement

To diagnose some diseases, a child may need to have a CT scan or MRI with a so-called contrast - and you should not be afraid of this study. Before the procedure, the doctor will carefully collect anamnesis and find out all about possible contraindications. For greater safety, a study with contrast enhancement in children is carried out only in hospitals.

Where will my child be taken for CT and MRI?

According to the order of the Moscow Department of Health, the routing of children on CT and MRI in hospitals is carried out in accordance with the assignment by the district. That is, depending on the CT scan centre in which you are monitored, you will be assigned a referral to one or another institution.

In most cases, children under 3 years old are sent to inpatient medical organizations for CT and MRI. This is due to the need to introduce anesthesia for the success of the study. Children over 4 years old can undergo an outpatient study.

Cancer and PET CT Scan

Everyone who has suffered from cancer knows the importance of early diagnosis and effective treatment. However, the situation in the country is absurd: there is not enough money for medicine, and modern treatment with effective medicines is paid for by the patient or depends on the availability of public donations, therefore high-tech diagnostics are mostly available in private medical institutions.

PET / CT allows you to assess the extent of the tumor lesion of the patient and correctly determine the stage of the disease. Information on how far malignant cells have spread is extremely important for the choice of treatment tactics. Examination of patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy, or undergoing surgery, is necessary to monitor the results of prescribed treatment - PET / CT scan will show how the tumor changes, will allow to see new foci and relapses.

A full-body PET / CT scan is performed for:

  • Detection of metastases and primary tumor foci;
  • Determine the extent of the tumor process;
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment;
  • Differentiation of benign and malignant tumors;
  • Planning tactics of therapy.

In PET-Technology, diagnostics with 18-FDG is carried out for the following diseases: malignant skeletal tumors, melanoma, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas, thyroid cancer, breast, cervix, thymus, testicles, lung glands, ovaries, stomach and intestines.

The test scan takes place in two stages:

The introduction of the drug. The patient is given an intravenous injection. The procedure is painless, sometimes accompanied by a sensation of heat. The drug is distributed in all cells within an hour. Important: After the introduction of the drug you need to lie quietly, do not move, do not talk, do not read - 18-FDG accumulates in actively working muscles, which can affect the results. Drink clean water to improve cell imaging.

PET/CT scan. The patient is placed in a tomograph, where a computed tomography of the whole body is first performed, followed by a positron emission tomography of the whole body. In some cases, a contrast agent is additionally introduced, which improves the visualization of the hollow organs - the intestines and vessels. The software of the device superimposes CT scans on PET scans, as a result, structural, physiological and metabolic changes in the tissues can be assessed.

PET / CT does not last more than an hour, but in the center you will spend from 2 to 5 hours - this includes preliminary preparation, documentation, and rest after the procedure. Before the examination, you need to change into comfortable clothes and remove all products containing metal.

During the rest period it is important to maintain immobility, this contributes to the correct distribution of the radiopharmaceutical and, as a result, to a qualitative display of the pathological focus. To obtain a good quality of the study, it is necessary to remain stationary during the entire scan time (the study can last from 20 to 40 minutes).

After completing the procedures, do not leave the territory of the diagnostic lab in Delhi without the permission of the medical staff, as it may sometimes be necessary to repeat the scan.

What Must Be Kept In Mind About Pregnancy Tests?

Pregnancy tests are no more a taboo or something which cannot be done at home as well. With the advancement in the field of medical science, their pregnancy kits which add to the swiftness. They are handy and do not cost you a fortune. When in doubt, they can be used anytime without the consultation of an expert. But it must also be taken into note that all pregnancy test kits, the expensive ones, in particular, does not equate to being accurate. Hence, we discuss some of the key factors which must be kept in mind about pregnancy tests:

  1. Take a sample of the first-morning urine- By using urine from the first thing in the morning you actually have more of the hormone (hCG) that the test is looking for building up in your urine. It can thus be beneficial for getting an accurate test reading. All you need is keep your forgetfulness aside and do not take a leak. Many also are of the opinion that if you hold up urine for more than four hours, it is going to be as useful as the first-morning urine as a sample to check whether you are pregnant or not. But the key is basically to not overload yourself on fluids to make your urine more dilute.
  2. Read the instructions carefully- Anxiety kicks in at the very thought of checking for pregnancy pretty much like going for the first ct scan. It has certainly the potential to change our lives forever. Nevertheless, one needs to be patient and But, before you even enter the bathroom, pull out the instructions and read them thoroughly. Leave nothing to chance and if you have had a test previously, don't rely upon them completely. Also, there are limits which decide on how long the test is valid to read.
  3. Follow up on the tests- If you received a negative result which was not of the expected kind, or you have not started your period a week later, you need to retest. It is very much a process that most of the pregnancy tests ask you to follow. The reason being that it allows the body to produce detectable amounts of hCG in your urine. Thus it can be construed that a negative test may not always be a negative test. Perhaps, it would be too early for the test to turn positive.

Pregnancy can be sensitive as well as a volatile issue for many women trying to avoid unwanted pregnancy. It is not just the unmarried women but also the married ones planning a family who go for these tests all by themselves. That being said, it is most advised to seek medical help of the expert if there are too many contradictions on results. The test kits are made to give the women a firsthand insight on how accurate their conjecture about the pregnancy is. When in doubt, it is always better to take a step ahead.

Computed Tomography for Dental Implantation

Installing an implant requires thorough preparation. The operation is preceded by the collection and analysis of data on the state of health of the patient, the anatomical features of his oral cavity. The doctor assesses the results of the best CT scan in Delhi, a detailed image of the bones and soft tissues of the maxillofacial region obtained by computed tomography. Based on complex data, it is possible to make a prediction of implant implantation.

The method of computed tomography of the jaw is actively used in implantology. It is necessary if the panoramic picture does not give a complete picture of the features of the bones and tissues that the implantologist will deal with. The X-ray emitter rotates along the path of the helix; it can scan bone tissue, temporomandibular joint, dental roots - depending on the nature of the doctor's prescription.

A cone beam Tomograph creates a digital model of the patient’s maxillary system in 3-D format. Thus, the features of the teeth, the thickness, density and structure of the jaw bone tissue, the position of the maxillary sinuses are determined with precision. The specialist models the implantable implant calculates its inclination and the position of the jaw. The whole procedure of integrating the artificial root depends on the quality of the examination.

Also, with the help of CT, the state of filling materials in the teeth, roots, dentin, pulp, and nerve tissue is assessed. During the examination, it is possible to identify the formations at an early stage and begin their treatment.

Key advantages of using CT scanner in dentistry:

A copy of the picture is saved to external media or printed. The patient will also be able to see how his teeth will look after correcting the problem.

The method of 3D tomography is used in medical dentistry. Using a snapshot, the specialist determines the treatment method and the Osseo integration scheme. A special program allows you to test the result of implantation and eliminate complications.

How is CT performed?

A computer and a scanning device are integral parts of a dental 3D tomography. The scanner is provided with X-rays. There are two types of equipment:

The scanner is in the shape of a cylinder, in which the patient lies.

A special unit for dental offices. It has a rotating part and support for the patient's head.

Both types of scanners at CT scan Centersare programmed to take up to six images per second. All data is transferred to the computer for processing. Special software reproduces on the screen a model of the scanned area. The 3D image consists of several layers. Pictures are displayed on the monitor screen. The specialist analyzes the three layers of the scanned area: frontal, diametrical, vertical.

For security reasons and to obtain a high-quality snapshot, the client needs to perform a number of actions:

  • Get rid of metal objects (remove earrings, chains, etc., jewelry);
  • Wear a radiation protective apron;
  • Sit down or lie down, fixing the head on the support;
  • Do not move while scanning the jaw, forming a 3D image.
  • If there is a need to introduce a contrast agent, the patient should not eat and drink 4 hours before the session.

PET, A Test Increasingly Requested in Oncology But Limited by Its High Price

If you have been treated for cancer, it is normal that you want to do everything possible to ensure that you do not return. But you may not need the tests, and your risks may be greater than the benefits. Below is the reason:

In general, PET-CT scans do not help people who have completed cancer treatments and have no symptoms.

For most cancers, these tests do not help you live longer or have a better quality of life. If you have the tomographies done without a good reason, they can produce anxiety, wrong diagnoses, false alarms, unnecessary procedures, and more costs.

Often, there are better ways to monitor your condition:

  • It is alert to symptoms that could mean that cancer has returned.
  • Get regular exams that include a medical history and a medical exam.
  • For some cancers, there are simple tests you should do, such as mammograms for women who have been treated for breast cancer.
  • Ask your doctor what proof, if any, is appropriate for your situation.

PET and PET-CT scans have risks.

Performing whole body PET scans Delhi can contribute to stress as a cancer survivor. Often, these tests detect medical problems that are not serious. This could cause more tests and procedures, including follow-up scans, and even biopsies and surgery.

In addition, PET scans, and especially PET-CT scans expose you to high levels of radiation. The effects of radiation accumulate throughout your life. This can increase your risk of cancer. They should not do multiple CT scans unless there is medical evidence that shows they would help you. Ask your consulted doctor if it is a good idea to have multiple CT scans.

So, when is a good idea to have a PET scan after treatment?

A PET scan or PET-CT scan may be helpful if your doctor suspects that your cancer has returned, based on your symptoms, a medical exam or other tests. A CT scan may also be suggested if you were given treatment for advanced cancer, and your doctor needs to find out if your most recent treatment was effective.

Positron emission tomography (known as PET, according to the acronym in English) is the newest of these non-invasive diagnostic techniques introduced within the field of nuclear medicine. PET brings together the most advanced physics, electronics, and computer engineering, disciplines on which it has depended for its development and implementation in clinical practice. But its use is being held back by the high price of the test.

The latest generation scanners of PET CT scan are not claustrophobic for the patient and allow obtaining high-quality full body images in a reasonable time of 30 to 60 minutes. The PET obtains images of the whole organism thanks to the action of diverse molecules marked with isotopes (radioactive drugs) emitting positrons (subatomic particles), which have been previously injected to the patient by the intravenous route.

When Do I Need to Undergo PET CT Scan ?

Computed tomography occupies a leading position in the field of visualization diagnostics. Using this method, you can select the contours, shape, and position of the tumor in the body. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides information on the metabolic activity of the tumor, in many cases accurately detect the tissue affected by cancer and confirm the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

These two processes are combined in a unique method of accurate diagnosis and tumor localization. PEC-CT can act as a tool for deciding whether surgery or chemotherapy is necessary. Using this method, you can accurately determine the size, position, activity, and area of spread of neoplastic disease. It combines the advantages of two different technologies in one device.

Benefits of PET-CT

In one session of the survey, you can determine the presence of metastases in the human body.

Immediately after the start of chemotherapy, you can determine its effectiveness. If sugar consumption in the area of cancer or metastasis is reduced, then cancer treatment is effective. If sugar consumption remains high, then it is possible at the initial stage to switch to other methods of treatment and thereby increase the chances of cure.

In the course of subsequent treatment, this diagnostic method allows to determine the possible residues of a tumor or the formation of new metastases or to exclude their presence.

You will receive an accurate diagnosis in time for an early stage of the disease. This is very important because the timely start of treatment is crucial for the treatment of cancer.

When do I need to undergo PET?

The PET CT scan method is used primarily in the diagnosis of cancer, such as cancer of the esophagus, lung or thyroid, head, and neck, including malignant lymphadenopathy (malignant lymphomas). With the help of PET-CT is determined by the focus of cancer lesions. Also, the examination reveals the degree of malignancy of the tumor and the stage of the disease. This is very important for the selection of a suitable treatment method, including the elimination of unnecessary therapeutic measures.

During or immediately after the end of treatment against cancer, the PET-CT method allows to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Also, PET is used to diagnose diseases of the heart and nervous system. The areas of application include, above all, the definition or exclusion of stitches before heart bypass surgery, as well as in dementia.

How is the examination?

For the examination, a small amount of a short-lived radioactive drug is administered to the patient. The patient lies comfortably on his back, if possible not moving. The medical couch gradually passes through a rather wide opening in the apparatus. The PET scanner is silent. The examination is performed using a PET scanner, which visually resembles a Computed Tomography (CT).

That is, it is not a narrow tunnel as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the examination, the PET CT scan camera takes phased shots of the entire body. A computer connected to the camera analyzes the received data and outputs a complex image. It shows how the radioactive substance has spread throughout the body.

The examination time is from 20 to 45 minutes. After that, the obtained images are reconstructed on a computer to obtain the final result of the analysis. Sometimes, for a better examination of the epigastric region, an antispasmodic is introduced into the body to suspend the active activity of the colon.

Purpose, Process and Preparation For Abdominal CT Scan

The full form of CT Scan is Computed Tomography scan. You can call it a specialized x-ray that can produce and show you the cross-sectional images of any particular part of your body. When it is done for the abdomen area, then it is known as abdominal CT Scan.

Some Vital Points to Be Noted

Some critical points you must know regarding CT Scan Abdomen before you go through this test.

•    When a doctor suspects that there can be some abnormalities in the abdomen area of an individual, then he can advise for abdominal CT Scan.

•    If you have any dye allergies, then you must inform your doctor about the same before you go for this test.

•    In general, an abdominal CT scan takes 30 to 45 minutes to be done, and it takes 24 hours to prepare the report.

What Is The Purpose Of Having CT Scan

When your doctor suspects that something is wrong inside your abdomen and need a closer and clearer view of that area, then he can ask for a CT Scan. There are some symptoms due to which a doctor can advise you for this medical examination.

1.    Pain in the abdominal area

2.    To check the size and the location of the stones present in kidneys

3.    To check palpable mass in the abdominal area

4.    Unexplained weight loss

5.    To detect appendicitis

6.    To detect other abdominal infections

7.    Injuries inside the abdominal

8.    Blood clots

9.    Recent cancer diagnosis

10.    To check any obstruction in the intestinal area

Once the doctor gets the report of your CT scan, then he can check the same, and understand the cause of having any of these issues that are mentioned above. Sometimes, the doctor may suggest having the CT scan in between a treatment process to check the progress of that treatment on your body or the abdomen.

Process Of CT Scan

There is a certain machine used in CT scan. The device circles your body and sends its images to a computer which is adjoined with that device. Then those images will be viewed by a technician. Each of these images is viewed as a cross-section image so that it can provide the medical professionals with alternate views of your body.

Through an abdominal CT scan, the doctors are able to see the vessels, organs, and bones of your body in the cavity of the abdomen.

How To Get Prepared For This Test?

In general, the doctors ask the patients to fast for 2 to 4 hours before the test beings. They may also ask you to stop particular medication before this test. Since you will be needed to lie down on the best to go through this test; hence, you should wear something comfortable and loose. You should not wear any jewelry or other items when going through a CT scan.

To know the CT scan price, log on to www.3hcare.in and get details of diagnostic centers offering this service around your locality.

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