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Diagnosis Of Lung Cancer

Regardless of the context of discovery, a number of investigations must be performed to confirm the diagnosis of lung cancer and evaluate its stage.

The diagnostic balance is based mainly on:

  • A clinical examination- The objective of the clinical examination is to make an assessment of your general condition using various means such as performance status, to identify your medical history and the pathologies you suffer from, to list your current treatments, your risk factors and your smoking addiction, if you smoke, to assess the possible frailty of elderly patients using specific questionnaires and scales.
  • A chest x-ray- The purpose of this examination is to reveal the presence of abnormalities in the lungs. However, the X-ray does not make it possible to determine whether an abnormality discovered is benign or malignant. And, moreover, it does not always detect an anomaly, even if it is actually present in the lung.
  • A chest scanner- It is a question of identifying the presence or absence of an anomaly and, if so, its size and location. This examination detects anomalies even of very small size (less than or equal to 3 millimeters). The scanner gives no indication of the type of cells in question. In the case of lung cancer, the CT scan done by the best CT scan centre in Delhi can identify if the nearby lymph nodes are abnormally large. But it does not make it possible to specify whether or not they are affected by cancer cells. Before going to have a CT scan, it is important to know the chest CT scan cost in Delhi.
  • Biopsy. The biopsy makes it possible to recover tissue samples that seem abnormal for analysis and to determine whether they are of a cancerous nature or not. These samples can also be stored after the operation in a tumor library (tumor library) for further research.
  • In some situations, it is not possible, before treatment, to obtain a histological diagnosis, which requires an analysis of tissues taken from the tumor. This is then performed during the surgical procedure. The operation then has a diagnostic and therapeutic purpose.

Bronchial fibroscopy

The bronchoscopy is the key diagnostic for lung cancers. It allows doctors to observe the inner wall of the trachea and bronchi, as well as to take samples at the level of suspicious lesions (biopsy).

These tissue samples are then analyzed under a microscope to confirm or deny the nature of the lesions. In the case of proven cancer, it is then possible to determine which tumor subtype is detected and thus to choose the most appropriate treatment.

Specifically, a flexible tube containing a miniature camera and sampling instruments is introduced into the bronchi, via the trachea and the patient's nose.

The examination is unpleasant, but it is not painful because it is performed under local anesthesia. It lasts 10 to 20 minutes. It is necessary to be fasting for at least two hours before the beginning of fibroscopy.

Due to the (low) risk of hemorrhage associated with the examination, it is recommended that you do not take aspirin within 10 days of the exam. People on anticoagulant therapy should report it.

Why Leg Cramps Must Be Given Immediate Attention?

It is more of a common problem that we face these days irrespective of what age bracket we come under. Waking up after a good night's sleep, we experience a certain kind of stiffness in the leg muscles in areas like ankles, calves and even knee caps. Commonly known as leg cramps, the pain is also known as “charley horse. The pain can be and can happen when a muscle gets involuntarily stiff and can’t relax. The condition is more of a nuisance as we age. If the pain gets to the unbearable ranges, a CT scan must be obtained to check what the condition and bone health are.

The reasons for leg cramps are quite a lot. Some of the common ones include:

  • Lack of hydration- We have seen many a time an athlete is down on the ground due to a sudden leg cramp and muscle pull. This point to nothing but hydration. The liquid flow in the body is needed to keep the muscle's constituent's intact.
  • Lack of adequate nutrition- It is a necessity to have a balance of electrolytes (calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium) for the contraction and relaxation of a muscle. But the same should not be done by self-treating with supplements. If you take an excess of food supplements, it can be harmful. Hence, you must focus on the simplicity of the food eating whilst maintaining an intake of mostly complex nutrients which are not processed.
  • Side-effects due to medication- Some medications such as statins and furosemide can also cause muscle cramps. It has been frequently observed among the suffering people that they complain of cramps in the legs when they begin taking a new medication. If the problems persist, consult your doctors immediately.
  • Poor blood circulation- A certain amount of daily activity can improve the circulation of the entire body including that of the legs. Lack of walking or even excessive leg activity for that matter can cause hurt in your legs. Therefore, the initial bout of pain in the legs should not be ignored and must be consulted with an orthopedic doctor.
  • Ignoring exercises like stretching- After a long hour of sleep, the body does tend to develop uneven postures that can add to the problem of leg cramps. One should not start off without a stretching exercise to ease the muscles before a strenuous day.

One of the most important things that we tend to forget is the fact that our muscle for legs does most of the balancing act. It is the legs that carry the weight of the entire body. Therefore, even a bit of discomfort in the leg muscle must not be ignored. For the problems that are impending for long should be tested in an MRI scan to figure if these are ominous signs to something threatening. Seek the services of the MRI scan centers in West Delhi which can obtain clear images of the concerned area.

Cancer and PET CT Scan

Everyone who has suffered from cancer knows the importance of early diagnosis and effective treatment. However, the situation in the country is absurd: there is not enough money for medicine, and modern treatment with effective medicines is paid for by the patient or depends on the availability of public donations, therefore high-tech diagnostics are mostly available in private medical institutions.

PET / CT allows you to assess the extent of the tumor lesion of the patient and correctly determine the stage of the disease. Information on how far malignant cells have spread is extremely important for the choice of treatment tactics. Examination of patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy, or undergoing surgery, is necessary to monitor the results of prescribed treatment - PET / CT scan will show how the tumor changes, will allow to see new foci and relapses.

A full-body PET / CT scan is performed for:

  • Detection of metastases and primary tumor foci;
  • Determine the extent of the tumor process;
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment;
  • Differentiation of benign and malignant tumors;
  • Planning tactics of therapy.

In PET-Technology, diagnostics with 18-FDG is carried out for the following diseases: malignant skeletal tumors, melanoma, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas, thyroid cancer, breast, cervix, thymus, testicles, lung glands, ovaries, stomach and intestines.

The test scan takes place in two stages:

The introduction of the drug. The patient is given an intravenous injection. The procedure is painless, sometimes accompanied by a sensation of heat. The drug is distributed in all cells within an hour. Important: After the introduction of the drug you need to lie quietly, do not move, do not talk, do not read - 18-FDG accumulates in actively working muscles, which can affect the results. Drink clean water to improve cell imaging.

PET/CT scan. The patient is placed in a tomograph, where a computed tomography of the whole body is first performed, followed by a positron emission tomography of the whole body. In some cases, a contrast agent is additionally introduced, which improves the visualization of the hollow organs - the intestines and vessels. The software of the device superimposes CT scans on PET scans, as a result, structural, physiological and metabolic changes in the tissues can be assessed.

PET / CT does not last more than an hour, but in the center you will spend from 2 to 5 hours - this includes preliminary preparation, documentation, and rest after the procedure. Before the examination, you need to change into comfortable clothes and remove all products containing metal.

During the rest period it is important to maintain immobility, this contributes to the correct distribution of the radiopharmaceutical and, as a result, to a qualitative display of the pathological focus. To obtain a good quality of the study, it is necessary to remain stationary during the entire scan time (the study can last from 20 to 40 minutes).

After completing the procedures, do not leave the territory of the diagnostic lab in Delhi without the permission of the medical staff, as it may sometimes be necessary to repeat the scan.

What Must Be Kept In Mind About Pregnancy Tests?

Pregnancy tests are no more a taboo or something which cannot be done at home as well. With the advancement in the field of medical science, their pregnancy kits which add to the swiftness. They are handy and do not cost you a fortune. When in doubt, they can be used anytime without the consultation of an expert. But it must also be taken into note that all pregnancy test kits, the expensive ones, in particular, does not equate to being accurate. Hence, we discuss some of the key factors which must be kept in mind about pregnancy tests:

  1. Take a sample of the first-morning urine- By using urine from the first thing in the morning you actually have more of the hormone (hCG) that the test is looking for building up in your urine. It can thus be beneficial for getting an accurate test reading. All you need is keep your forgetfulness aside and do not take a leak. Many also are of the opinion that if you hold up urine for more than four hours, it is going to be as useful as the first-morning urine as a sample to check whether you are pregnant or not. But the key is basically to not overload yourself on fluids to make your urine more dilute.
  2. Read the instructions carefully- Anxiety kicks in at the very thought of checking for pregnancy pretty much like going for the first ct scan. It has certainly the potential to change our lives forever. Nevertheless, one needs to be patient and But, before you even enter the bathroom, pull out the instructions and read them thoroughly. Leave nothing to chance and if you have had a test previously, don't rely upon them completely. Also, there are limits which decide on how long the test is valid to read.
  3. Follow up on the tests- If you received a negative result which was not of the expected kind, or you have not started your period a week later, you need to retest. It is very much a process that most of the pregnancy tests ask you to follow. The reason being that it allows the body to produce detectable amounts of hCG in your urine. Thus it can be construed that a negative test may not always be a negative test. Perhaps, it would be too early for the test to turn positive.

Pregnancy can be sensitive as well as a volatile issue for many women trying to avoid unwanted pregnancy. It is not just the unmarried women but also the married ones planning a family who go for these tests all by themselves. That being said, it is most advised to seek medical help of the expert if there are too many contradictions on results. The test kits are made to give the women a firsthand insight on how accurate their conjecture about the pregnancy is. When in doubt, it is always better to take a step ahead.

Computed Tomography for Dental Implantation

Installing an implant requires thorough preparation. The operation is preceded by the collection and analysis of data on the state of health of the patient, the anatomical features of his oral cavity. The doctor assesses the results of the best CT scan in Delhi, a detailed image of the bones and soft tissues of the maxillofacial region obtained by computed tomography. Based on complex data, it is possible to make a prediction of implant implantation.

The method of computed tomography of the jaw is actively used in implantology. It is necessary if the panoramic picture does not give a complete picture of the features of the bones and tissues that the implantologist will deal with. The X-ray emitter rotates along the path of the helix; it can scan bone tissue, temporomandibular joint, dental roots - depending on the nature of the doctor's prescription.

A cone beam Tomograph creates a digital model of the patient’s maxillary system in 3-D format. Thus, the features of the teeth, the thickness, density and structure of the jaw bone tissue, the position of the maxillary sinuses are determined with precision. The specialist models the implantable implant calculates its inclination and the position of the jaw. The whole procedure of integrating the artificial root depends on the quality of the examination.

Also, with the help of CT, the state of filling materials in the teeth, roots, dentin, pulp, and nerve tissue is assessed. During the examination, it is possible to identify the formations at an early stage and begin their treatment.

Key advantages of using CT scanner in dentistry:

A copy of the picture is saved to external media or printed. The patient will also be able to see how his teeth will look after correcting the problem.

The method of 3D tomography is used in medical dentistry. Using a snapshot, the specialist determines the treatment method and the Osseo integration scheme. A special program allows you to test the result of implantation and eliminate complications.

How is CT performed?

A computer and a scanning device are integral parts of a dental 3D tomography. The scanner is provided with X-rays. There are two types of equipment:

The scanner is in the shape of a cylinder, in which the patient lies.

A special unit for dental offices. It has a rotating part and support for the patient's head.

Both types of scanners at CT scan Centersare programmed to take up to six images per second. All data is transferred to the computer for processing. Special software reproduces on the screen a model of the scanned area. The 3D image consists of several layers. Pictures are displayed on the monitor screen. The specialist analyzes the three layers of the scanned area: frontal, diametrical, vertical.

For security reasons and to obtain a high-quality snapshot, the client needs to perform a number of actions:

  • Get rid of metal objects (remove earrings, chains, etc., jewelry);
  • Wear a radiation protective apron;
  • Sit down or lie down, fixing the head on the support;
  • Do not move while scanning the jaw, forming a 3D image.
  • If there is a need to introduce a contrast agent, the patient should not eat and drink 4 hours before the session.

PET, A Test Increasingly Requested in Oncology But Limited by Its High Price

If you have been treated for cancer, it is normal that you want to do everything possible to ensure that you do not return. But you may not need the tests, and your risks may be greater than the benefits. Below is the reason:

In general, PET-CT scans do not help people who have completed cancer treatments and have no symptoms.

For most cancers, these tests do not help you live longer or have a better quality of life. If you have the tomographies done without a good reason, they can produce anxiety, wrong diagnoses, false alarms, unnecessary procedures, and more costs.

Often, there are better ways to monitor your condition:

  • It is alert to symptoms that could mean that cancer has returned.
  • Get regular exams that include a medical history and a medical exam.
  • For some cancers, there are simple tests you should do, such as mammograms for women who have been treated for breast cancer.
  • Ask your doctor what proof, if any, is appropriate for your situation.

PET and PET-CT scans have risks.

Performing whole body PET scans Delhi can contribute to stress as a cancer survivor. Often, these tests detect medical problems that are not serious. This could cause more tests and procedures, including follow-up scans, and even biopsies and surgery.

In addition, PET scans, and especially PET-CT scans expose you to high levels of radiation. The effects of radiation accumulate throughout your life. This can increase your risk of cancer. They should not do multiple CT scans unless there is medical evidence that shows they would help you. Ask your consulted doctor if it is a good idea to have multiple CT scans.

So, when is a good idea to have a PET scan after treatment?

A PET scan or PET-CT scan may be helpful if your doctor suspects that your cancer has returned, based on your symptoms, a medical exam or other tests. A CT scan may also be suggested if you were given treatment for advanced cancer, and your doctor needs to find out if your most recent treatment was effective.

Positron emission tomography (known as PET, according to the acronym in English) is the newest of these non-invasive diagnostic techniques introduced within the field of nuclear medicine. PET brings together the most advanced physics, electronics, and computer engineering, disciplines on which it has depended for its development and implementation in clinical practice. But its use is being held back by the high price of the test.

The latest generation scanners of PET CT scan are not claustrophobic for the patient and allow obtaining high-quality full body images in a reasonable time of 30 to 60 minutes. The PET obtains images of the whole organism thanks to the action of diverse molecules marked with isotopes (radioactive drugs) emitting positrons (subatomic particles), which have been previously injected to the patient by the intravenous route.

Low Dose Thoracic CT Scan

Thoracic Pathologies and Radiation Problems

The scanner is the reference diagnostic tool for thoracic pathology. Unlike a standard X-ray, sectional images help to avoid the appearance of shadows. Thanks to the air in the lungs and the contrast media, the resolution is ideal for lung parenchyma examination. In addition, the thoracic scanner has a very high spatial resolution, exceeding the performance of the MRI as part of a health check.

Fast and easy to perform (4 to 5 seconds), CT scan significantly reduces movement artifacts. In addition, the various filters, the software and the 3D reconstructions make it possible to improve the interpretation of the images obtained. Unfortunately, the CT scan shows a very high level of radiation. The low dose chest scanner has been developed to work around this problem.

MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF THE TECHNIQUE

With the low-dose chest CT scan, the primary goal is to obtain usable images with a radiation level equivalent to that of a standard X-ray. The dose is then adjusted according to the age and body size of the subject. The examination thus displays a radiation rate in the order of 1/10th to 1/20th of the 25th percentile of the reference level. Set by the ASCN (Nuclear Safety Authority), this value corresponds to the average dose used in hospitals.

At its lowest level, the low-dose chest CT scan by the best CT scan Centre in Delhi provides satisfactory images for nodule observation or monitoring of problems such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pneumonia, etc. With a slightly increased dose, it can serve as a first-line examination for the management of certain diseases. The examination has been particularly successful in the early diagnosis of bronchial cancer in the context of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST).

The lung scan may be useful for detecting blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), but it has largely been replaced by CT angiography in the diagnosis of this condition. Pulmonary scintigraphy can also be used as a preoperative assessment in people with lung cancer. Pulmonary scintigraphy uses small amounts of a half-life radioactive substance to measure air and blood flow throughout the lungs. In general, the exam is done in two stages.

In the first step (pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy), a radioactive substance is injected into a vein, and the scanner produces an image of the diffusion of this product into the pulmonary bloodstream. If perfusion scintigraphy reveals abnormalities, it is necessary to proceed to a second step (pulmonary ventilation scintigraphy).

INDICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES

The low-dose chest CT scan is particularly interesting because of the quality of the images obtained, its speed and the significant reduction of radiation risks. The technique is mainly used for the early detection of bronchial cancer in a population at risk and the follow-up of various thoracic disorders. Thus, doctors can quickly adjust the treatment of patients, case by case. However, computed tomography poses a significant problem because of CT scan price in Delhi.

Currently, low dose CT screening for lung cancer is four times more expensive than for breast cancer and ten times more expensive than for colon cancer. As a result, it is currently inconceivable to use it for repeated checks. The latter can indeed take several years and generate excessive expenditure for patients and care organizations.

When Do I Need to Undergo PET CT Scan ?

Computed tomography occupies a leading position in the field of visualization diagnostics. Using this method, you can select the contours, shape, and position of the tumor in the body. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides information on the metabolic activity of the tumor, in many cases accurately detect the tissue affected by cancer and confirm the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

These two processes are combined in a unique method of accurate diagnosis and tumor localization. PEC-CT can act as a tool for deciding whether surgery or chemotherapy is necessary. Using this method, you can accurately determine the size, position, activity, and area of spread of neoplastic disease. It combines the advantages of two different technologies in one device.

Benefits of PET-CT

In one session of the survey, you can determine the presence of metastases in the human body.

Immediately after the start of chemotherapy, you can determine its effectiveness. If sugar consumption in the area of cancer or metastasis is reduced, then cancer treatment is effective. If sugar consumption remains high, then it is possible at the initial stage to switch to other methods of treatment and thereby increase the chances of cure.

In the course of subsequent treatment, this diagnostic method allows to determine the possible residues of a tumor or the formation of new metastases or to exclude their presence.

You will receive an accurate diagnosis in time for an early stage of the disease. This is very important because the timely start of treatment is crucial for the treatment of cancer.

When do I need to undergo PET?

The PET CT scan method is used primarily in the diagnosis of cancer, such as cancer of the esophagus, lung or thyroid, head, and neck, including malignant lymphadenopathy (malignant lymphomas). With the help of PET-CT is determined by the focus of cancer lesions. Also, the examination reveals the degree of malignancy of the tumor and the stage of the disease. This is very important for the selection of a suitable treatment method, including the elimination of unnecessary therapeutic measures.

During or immediately after the end of treatment against cancer, the PET-CT method allows to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Also, PET is used to diagnose diseases of the heart and nervous system. The areas of application include, above all, the definition or exclusion of stitches before heart bypass surgery, as well as in dementia.

How is the examination?

For the examination, a small amount of a short-lived radioactive drug is administered to the patient. The patient lies comfortably on his back, if possible not moving. The medical couch gradually passes through a rather wide opening in the apparatus. The PET scanner is silent. The examination is performed using a PET scanner, which visually resembles a Computed Tomography (CT).

That is, it is not a narrow tunnel as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the examination, the PET CT scan camera takes phased shots of the entire body. A computer connected to the camera analyzes the received data and outputs a complex image. It shows how the radioactive substance has spread throughout the body.

The examination time is from 20 to 45 minutes. After that, the obtained images are reconstructed on a computer to obtain the final result of the analysis. Sometimes, for a better examination of the epigastric region, an antispasmodic is introduced into the body to suspend the active activity of the colon.

Benefit of CT Scan of the Chest

Computed tomography occupies an essential place in the diagnosis of diseases of the lungs and mediastinal organs. The procedure is based on the use of X-rays with further reproduction of the obtained data in the form of images on a computer screen. In contrast to conventional X-rays, computed tomography shows color images on the screen, which makes it possible to more correctly assess the state of scanned objects and diagnose diseases of the lungs, blood vessels, heart, and esophagus. Computed tomography of the chest is an indispensable method for diagnosing lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. This method is also highly informative when diagnosing diseases of the mediastinum organs: lymphomas, aneurysms, thromboembolism, etc.

When conducting computed tomography, an object is scanned from all sides with an X-ray beam. The tomograph sensors record the speed of passage of the beam. The received information goes to a computer, where individual programs process it, and later on, three-dimensional images of the scanned area are displayed on the screen. On such pictures, pathological educations are well visualized. The main advantage of computed tomography is that it allows you to identify various diseases even in the early stages, which further significantly affects the entire process of treatment.

The main indications for chest CT scan are:

•       Infectious diseases

•       Inflammatory diseases

•       Pulmonary embolism

•       Tumor diseases

•       Pathologies of large blood vessels of mediastinal organs

•       Lymph node lesions

In some cases, computed tomography of the chest is performed with prior contrasting. With CT with contrast, immediately before the start of the scan, an iodine-containing contrast agent is injected intravenously. This method of carrying out makes it possible to more thoroughly evaluate the work of the studied organ, the state of its vessels and tissues. However, CT with contrast cannot be used in some groups of patients, since they have diseases in which the use of a contrast agent is contraindicated.

Benefits of Chest Tomography

High image clarity, since the resolution of most modern devices, is at least 1-1.5 millimeters. This greatly facilitates the work of the diagnostician, allows you to interpret the data accurately.

The ability to obtain images in three-dimensional mode, thanks to the function of volumetric imaging computed tomography. The appearance of artifacts caused by the involuntary movements of patients is minimized.

Viewing images of chest slices in retrospective mode at any time after the study, subject to preservation of data on a hard disk or CD. The reconstruction step can vary widely.

The undoubted advantages that can be assessed not only by diagnosticians but also by patients who have undergone a study with a tomograph include

•       Efficiency diagnostics, which takes no more than 15-20 minutes.

•       The painless method that does not even cause discomfort.

•       The accuracy of the diagnosis, based on the data obtained.

•       The relatively low price of chest CT, especially in comparison with MRI.

Today, Computed Tomography of the chest is one of the most accurate and accessible diagnostic methods. Due to the short study time and minimal X-ray load, computed tomography is increasingly used to diagnose various diseases.

Myths and Realities: Magnetic Resonance and CT Scan are They the Same?

They are not. Having a CT (Scanner / CT) or Magnetic Resonance (MRI)  have in common that they are medical tests performed by the Technicians in Radio diagnosis (TSID) and that they provide images of the inside of your body. However, they fulfill this vital task in very different ways:

RADIATION

The CT scan uses ionizing radiation (X-rays) to produce the images, while Magnetic Resonance does not use ionizing radiation.

FUNCTIONING

A CT scan is an X-ray tube moving around the stretcher where the patient is lying down, and as this movement is made, multiple images (x-rays) of the body are obtained using X-rays from different angles. An MRI uses radio waves and powerful magnets to obtain the images, and although the stretcher can be moved, generally during the test the patient and the stretcher do not move. Different sequences are applied, and images are obtained once these are finished.

DIMENSIONS-CLAUSTROPHOBIA

The CT scan is in the form of a "donut," and during the test, the space between the patient and the team is wider than during an MRI. The MRI is a more or less elongated cylinder, but less "comfortable" than a CT scan. It is because of this design and its dimensions that if you are a person that you usually have claustrophobia or you are prone to overwhelm yourself in closed places, it is more likely that it can happen during an MRI than when performing a CT scan.

If this is the case, you should let the Radio-diagnostic Technician know that you will be tested so that he can inform you directly, show you the equipment and accompany you with his voice and vigilance during the development of the test.

UTILITY

The TAC is handy to evaluate bone injuries and internal injuries technique while the MRI is used to assess exceptionally soft tissue of the patient. The radiologist (a doctor specialized in radio diagnosis), evaluates according to the type of injury if it is convenient to perform one or another technique and even both.

METALLIC OBJECTS IN THE ROOM

In RM rooms it is not allowed to enter with metallic objectives (implanted or external) as they can cause problems in the study and safety. However, in the CT SCAN room, and just like when they perform a simple x-ray, it is allowed to enter the room with metallic objectives, but they should not be in the study area.

WEATHER

The time to perform a CT scan at a CT scan centre is much less than the time needed to perform a Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The TAC is a faster test to perform than an MRI, so in an emergency, it is usually the indicated test for a first diagnosis.

NOISE

The CT SCAN is a silent test if we compare it with an MRI study, in the CT SCAN you will hear the sound of the Rx equipment spinning around you while in the MRI it is a little more uncomfortable sound but more bearable if we reduce it with plugs or helmets compatible.

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