X-ray of the kidneys is a radiation research method designed to assess the anatomical structure and functional state of the urinary system. One of the most common methods for examining patients with suspected urolithiasis.
What is it like?
The method is based on the ability of X-rays to pass through body tissues, the degree of darkening (the so-called "shadow") in the finished image depends on the degree of density. Given the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on the body, the intensity of the rays is strictly dosed, and the procedure is carried out by ultrasound clinics only for medical reasons.
X-ray of the kidneys: indications for examination:
- Urolithiasis or suspicion of it
- Chronic kidney disease (to monitor and control treatment)
- Diagnosis of tumors, metastases
- Pelvic and lumbar injuries
- Postoperative control
- Significant deviations in the analysis of urine: hematuria (blood in the urine), proteinuria (protein), pathological changes in the smell, color, density, and transparency of urine
- Pain of characteristic localization (lumbar region and lower abdomen), renal colic
- Painful urination
- Suspected urinary obstruction (obstruction), urinary retention, swelling of the eyelids and face
- Ultrasound Refinement
X-ray (urography) of the kidneys: types of research
A panoramic x-ray of the kidneys- a picture in direct projection without contrast medium; allows you to evaluate the location, shape, and number of kidneys, the condition of the skeletal system of nearby areas, large foci of inflammation, necrosis, tumors, large calcium calculi
Excretory urography- an x-ray of the kidneys with a contrast agent; allows you to evaluate the excretory (excretory) functions of the kidneys: the state of the pyelocaliceal system, the integrity, and patency of the urinary tract; performed in 2 or more projections.
Infusion urography- radiography with an intravenous drip injection of contrast for a detailed study of the kidney parenchyma (body)
Direct pyelography- injection of contrast through a catheter from the lower urinary tract or through a nephropielostomy directly into the kidney; performed in a hospital
The most informative, simple, and inexpensive research method. It can be performed on an outpatient basis - immediately after the procedure, the patient goes home. The main advantage is the introduction of an iodine-based contrast agent, which, as it is filtered by the glomerular system and excreted through the urinary tract, highlights various areas in the picture.
What does kidney radiography show?
The kidney function test allows you to determine:
- Anatomical features of the structure of the organ: quantity, location, shape, size, uniformity, integrity
- Functional features: rate of filtration and excretion of the substance, filling of the pyelocaliceal system inside the kidney, diameter, and patency of the urinary tract
- Foreign inclusions: the presence of calcifications and stones (stones)- oxalates, carbonates, phosphates, clearly visible in the picture, crystals of salts ("sand"), damaging foreign particles (bone fragments after an injury, fragments)
- The tumor, its size, prevalence, the presence of metastases, the size of the lymph nodes
How is the procedure going?
The patient is injected with a contrast medium, after which 3 pictures are taken at strictly defined time intervals: the first - 5-7 minutes after administration, the second- 15-17 minutes, and the third- 20-23. In this way, the picture captures the contrast in the pyelocaliceal system, then in the ureter and, finally, in the bladder.