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X-Ray Of The Kidneys With Contrast

X-ray of the kidneys is a radiation research method designed to assess the anatomical structure and functional state of the urinary system. One of the most common methods for examining patients with suspected urolithiasis.

What is it like?

The method is based on the ability of X-rays to pass through body tissues, the degree of darkening (the so-called "shadow") in the finished image depends on the degree of density. Given the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on the body, the intensity of the rays is strictly dosed, and the procedure is carried out by ultrasound clinics only for medical reasons.

X-ray of the kidneys: indications for examination:

  • Urolithiasis or suspicion of it
  • Chronic kidney disease (to monitor and control treatment)
  • Diagnosis of tumors, metastases
  • Pelvic and lumbar injuries
  • Postoperative control
  • Significant deviations in the analysis of urine: hematuria (blood in the urine), proteinuria (protein), pathological changes in the smell, color, density, and transparency of urine
  • Pain of characteristic localization (lumbar region and lower abdomen), renal colic
  • Painful urination
  • Suspected urinary obstruction (obstruction), urinary retention, swelling of the eyelids and face
  • Hypertension
  • Ultrasound Refinement

X-ray (urography) of the kidneys: types of research

A panoramic x-ray of the kidneys- a picture in direct projection without contrast medium; allows you to evaluate the location, shape, and number of kidneys, the condition of the skeletal system of nearby areas, large foci of inflammation, necrosis, tumors, large calcium calculi

Excretory urography- an x-ray of the kidneys with a contrast agent; allows you to evaluate the excretory (excretory) functions of the kidneys: the state of the pyelocaliceal system, the integrity, and patency of the urinary tract; performed in 2 or more projections.

Infusion urography- radiography with an intravenous drip injection of contrast for a detailed study of the kidney parenchyma (body)

Direct pyelography- injection of contrast through a catheter from the lower urinary tract or through a nephropielostomy directly into the kidney; performed in a hospital

Contrast urography

The most informative, simple, and inexpensive research method. It can be performed on an outpatient basis - immediately after the procedure, the patient goes home. The main advantage is the introduction of an iodine-based contrast agent, which, as it is filtered by the glomerular system and excreted through the urinary tract, highlights various areas in the picture.

What does kidney radiography show?

The kidney function test allows you to determine:

  • Anatomical features of the structure of the organ: quantity, location, shape, size, uniformity, integrity
  • Functional features: rate of filtration and excretion of the substance, filling of the pyelocaliceal system inside the kidney, diameter, and patency of the urinary tract
  • Foreign inclusions: the presence of calcifications and stones (stones)- oxalates, carbonates, phosphates, clearly visible in the picture, crystals of salts ("sand"), damaging foreign particles (bone fragments after an injury, fragments)
  • The tumor, its size, prevalence, the presence of metastases, the size of the lymph nodes

How is the procedure going?

The patient is injected with a contrast medium, after which 3 pictures are taken at strictly defined time intervals: the first - 5-7 minutes after administration, the second- 15-17 minutes, and the third- 20-23. In this way, the picture captures the contrast in the pyelocaliceal system, then in the ureter and, finally, in the bladder.

What Is A Transvaginal Ultrasound And How Is It Done?

Transvaginal ultrasound is an imaging study used to examine the female pelvis when more detailed images of some organs are desired. A special transducer is used, and the study is painless, brief, and safe.

The transvaginal ultrasound test, such as gynecological ultrasound is an imaging test that is based on the use of ultrasound waves (i.e., high frequency), to explore the organs and structures in the female pelvis. The difference between both types of ultrasound is the transducer that emits the ultrasound waves: a thin transducer is used in transvaginal ultrasound and specially designed not to cause discomfort, which is gently inserted into the vagina. This transducer is slightly larger in size than a buffer.

Why does the doctor request a transvaginal ultrasound?

Transvaginal ultrasound provides more detailed and defined images of the organs located in the pelvis, especially the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. This is because the type of transducer allows ultrasound waves to be directed to visualize the structures of the pelvis in planes that are not possible with transabdominal gynecological ultrasound.

Generally, this study is requested when there is a pain in the pelvic region or abnormal bleeding. It provides valuable information to evaluate the presence of fibroids or polyps in the uterus, as well as cysts or other tumors in the ovaries, to evaluate causes of infertility and other possible problems in the structures of the pelvis.

How is the preparation of transvaginal ultrasound?

The transvaginal ultrasound is performed on an outpatient basis, i.e., in a clinic, and requires no special preparation. Unlike transabdominal ultrasound, you don't need to drink water or urinary bladder retention.

The ultrasound is completely painless, and it takes a few minutes. In general, fifteen minutes are enough. The professional who conducts the study will ask you to empty your bladder before starting. You will be asked to put on a gown and remove the garments from the lower half of the body (from the waist down). You will then lie on a stretcher and be asked to flex your knees, similar to when you perform the exam with your gynecologist.

Before starting transvaginal ultrasound, the transducer is covered with a latex protector that is discarded after the end of each patient's study. In addition, a thin layer of transparent gel is applied to lubricate said protector. In this way, the study generates minimal discomfort and is completely safe from a health point of view. After each study, the transducer is completely sterilized and cleaned.

There is no effect after an ultrasound. You may notice some vaginal discharge due to the lubricating gel, but it is scarce and lasts less than 24 hours. Before having an ultrasound, it is important to know ultrasound test price in Delhi.

Can you have sex before a gynecological ultrasound?

The answer is yes. Having sex the day before, or even the same day of the shift for transvaginal ultrasound does not modify or influence the results. Personal hygiene is always important.

Your privacy is protected at all times. You can request that the professional conducting the study be a woman if you feel more comfortable. At the time of requesting the turn, indicate that you wish.

Ultrasound For Children – Reasons Can Be Many

Ultrasound in children is a popular technique for diagnosing congenital abnormalities. Ultrasound helps to diagnose painlessly, quickly and accurately. Such an examination is used in all areas of medicine. Ultrasound helps to visualize the size, shape, and structure of the internal organs of the child and to identify pathological disorders in the early stages.

Types of ultrasound examination of the child

Depending on the symptoms, the children are examined such organs:

  • Examination of the abdominal cavity;
  • Kidney and bladder;
  • Brain (neuro sonography);
  • Thyroid gland;
  • Heart (echocardiography);
  • Hip joints;
  • Pelvic organs;
  • Mammary glands;
  • Doppler scanning of blood vessels.

Indication for an ultrasound of the child

A pediatrician, neurologist, orthopedist, cardiologist, pediatric gynecologist, or urologist will refer you for an ultrasound examination of the child. An indication for an ultrasound of a girl or boy is a suspicion of a deviation from the normal development or pathology of the internal organs.

There are also many congenital diseases that are asymptomatic from birth, and only after a year can somehow manifest themselves. Therefore, prophylactic ultrasound examinations of the brain, hip joints, and kidneys are recommended at an early age.

Mandatory ultrasound is performed on premature babies, babies with hereditary tendencies to pathologies, and children after difficult births. Also, an ultrasound examination of the baby will not hurt if the mother had infections during pregnancy.

Preparation for the procedure

Some special preparation for an ultrasound scan of a boy or girl is not needed, but there are several recommendations that must be adhered to: before examining the pelvic organs, give the child to drink up to 100 ml of water, since the examination is performed with a full bladder. For 1 - 2 days before ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, bakery products, fresh vegetables, fruits, and beans should be excluded from the diet.

Other types of children's ultrasound do not need special training.

Also, before the ultrasound testthink about how to dress the baby. For example, if you need to examine your hip joints, then your legs and hips are exposed, an abdominal ultrasound scan reveals your stomach. Therefore, especially in winter, choose clothes so that they can be easily removed and put on.

How is the ultrasound procedure in children?

Children's ultrasound lasts about 15 minutes. Depending on the studied area, the desired part of the body is exposed, the doctor applies a special gel and examines the image on the monitor. Parents are given a conclusion according to which a pediatrician or a specialist doctor will prescribe an individual treatment regimen.

If necessary, such an examination can be carried out daily for monitoring during treatment therapy.

Is it possible to do an ultrasound examination for children up to a year?

This is an absolutely harmless examination method. It can be carried out even for a baby a couple of hours after birth. Ultrasonic waves do not affect the health and development of the baby.

There are many advantages to such a study:

  • Allows you to identify congenital abnormalities;
  • High information content;
  • Painlessly;
  • Safely;
  • Quickly.

The child grows very quickly, and in order to control the development of internal organs, ultrasound clinics recommend systematic ultrasound diagnostics. Thanks to modern devices, the information content of ultrasound is very high and give a complete picture when making a diagnosis.

Definition Of Prostate Ultrasonography By Endorectal Approach

The ultrasound is a medical imaging technique based on the use of ultrasound, by which we can "see" inside the body. The ultrasound of the prostate, the gland just below the bladder in men and participating in the production of sperm, can be done in two ways:

For suprapubic: externally, by placing the probe above the pubis

By the endorectal route: internally, by introducing the probe into the rectum

Prostate ultrasound test in Delhi by the endorectal approach is more precise and allows to obtain a better image of the prostate. It also makes it possible to evaluate more precisely the volume of the gland as well as its "texture" and that of the accessory glands (seminal vesicles).

Why have an endorectal ultrasound?

Ultrasonography is a painless, non-invasive examination and is therefore first-line when the doctor suspects an abnormality in the prostate.

This can be the case:

  • After a rectal examination highlighting an abnormality (mass or hypertrophy) of the prostate
  • In case of urinary symptoms (frequent urge and emission of a small amount of urine, pain during urination, urinary tract infection, difficulty urinating, etc.)
  • In case of dosing showing an abnormal value of PSA (prostate antigen)
  • To diagnose Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
  • To guide the doctor when performing a biopsy and to help detect visually suspicious areas to better target specimens

However, endorectal ultrasound has no place in the diagnosis of prostate cancer because it is too inaccurate.

In addition to biopsies, ultrasonography is mainly used to assess prostatic volume, which tends to increase with age, which can lead to urinary discomfort (benign prostatic hypertrophy).

Examination

Ultrasound involves exposing the tissues or organs that one wishes to observe to ultrasonic waves. It does not require any preparation or anesthesia.

For endorectal ultrasound, an elongate (pencil-shaped) probe is used, covered with a condom and lubricated. It is inserted shallow into the anus, the patient lying on his side, knees bent. If a biopsy is performed at the same time, the doctor introduces a needle into the prostate, through the wall of the rectum, guided by ultrasound.

What results can be expected from an endorectal ultrasound of the prostate?

Whether it is to perform biopsies or to evaluate prostate volume, ultrasound clinics helps to diagnose prostate conditions, such as cancer (through biopsies) or benign prostatic hypertrophy. The choice of treatment will depend on the diagnosis but also the age of the patient, different risk factors, etc.

In the case of hypertrophy of the troublesome prostate, several drugs may be prescribed, including alpha-blockers and phytotherapy products (African plum or pygeum, saw palmetto).

Myths And Truth About Prenatal Screening

Prenatal screenings cause a lot of conflicting opinions and feedback. Someone is convinced of their necessity; others are convinced of their complete inexpediency. What kind of research is this, and should all pregnant women really take them? To understand this issue, let's weigh the pros and cons and separate the existing myths from the objective data of scientific medicine.

The argument "against" number 1: ultrasound harm the baby

There is a fairly common opinion that Pregnancy Ultrasound negatively affects the nervous system of a child, annoys him - during the examination, children often try to hide from the apparatus, cover their heads with hands. Therefore, children whose mothers regularly performed ultrasound during pregnancy are more restless than babies whose mothers have refused ultrasound diagnosis. Is it really?

According to doctors, ultrasound cannot cause the baby absolutely no harm - modern equipment is absolutely safe. Therefore, official medicine insists that absolutely all pregnant women should undergo an ultrasound. Indeed, the timely diagnosis allows, firstly, to see the full picture of the course of pregnancy, and secondly, if necessary, to correct certain problems.

Especially important are the data obtained on ultrasound of the first prenatal screening (at 11-13 weeks of pregnancy). During this period during the study:

  • The number of embryos in the uterus and their viability are determined;
  • Put a more accurate period of pregnancy;
  • Gross defects are excluded;
  • Determines the thickness of the collar space - (that is, the amount of subcutaneous fluid on the back of the child's            neck is measured - in normal TVP should not exceed 2.7 mm);
  • The presence or absence of the nasal bone is investigated.

The argument "against" No. 2: a biochemical blood test gives an unreliable result

Many mothers are sure that it is impossible to make at least some reliable conclusions on one analysis- too many factors can affect the result. And, in part, they are really right. However, it is necessary to study the analysis process more closely in order to understand on what basis the doctor makes a conclusion. The second screening takes place at 18-21 weeks of pregnancy. This study includes a "triple" or "quadruple test. "Everything happens the same way as in the first trimester- the woman again takes a blood test. Only in this case, the results of the analysis are used to determine not two, but three (or, respectively, four) indicators.

The argument "against" No. 3: "I have good heredity- I do not need screenings."

Some mothers do not see the point of going through screenings - all relatives are healthy, what problems could there be? Indeed, there are certain groups of women who are primarily recommended to undergo Pregnancy Ultrasound to identify possible pathologies in the development of a child. These are women over 35–40 years old (since after this age, the risk of developing abnormalities in a child increases several times) and expectant mothers with certain diseases (for example, diabetes).

Major Liver Disease During Ultrasound

Steatosis of the liver (different names may be: fatty hepatosis, fatty infiltration, fatty liver), which occurs on liver ultrasound, is an etiologically and pathogenetically heterogeneous syndrome, which is characterized by a prolonged and significant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. The main factor of steatosis is alcohol abuse, diabetes, obesity, unbalanced nutrition (protein deficiency), chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by impaired absorption (enteritis, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, etc.), chronic debilitating diseases (cancer, anemia, cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency, etc.), toxic (hepatotropic, medicinal) and bacterial factors.

Ultrasound test with a diffuse form of fatty hepatosis, as a rule, reveals an increase in the size of the liver, an unclear contour. The edges of the liver are rounded. Characteristic features include increased echogenicity of the parenchyma. Its structure is in most cases homogeneous, however, sometimes on the background of hyperechoic tissue, it is possible to detect areas of reduced reflection with uneven, fuzzy contours that do not deform the vascular pattern.

These are areas of unchanged parenchyma, which, as a rule, are detected in the portal fissure of the liver, in the projection of I, IV, V segments. The sound conduction of the liver is often reduced; the vascular pattern is depleted. In addition to diffuse, ultrasound of the liver also produces local and focal forms, when fatty infiltration extends only to limited segments and sectors of the liver, and sometimes manifests itself in the form of individual small zones, resembling focal education.

Ultrasound picture of fatty hepatosis does not always allow to clearly differentiate it from other diffuse organ lesions (chronic hepatitis, the initial stage of cirrhosis). Crucial importance in the diagnosis of steatosis and its delimitation from chronic hepatitis belongs to the puncture biopsy of the liver.

How does hepatitis show on ultrasound?

Acute hepatitis is an acute degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver. Hepatitis can be alcoholic or viral etiology, develop as a result of exposure to toxic or metabolic factors. The main ultrasound sign of this disease is hepatomegaly. In a significant number of observations, moreover, an increase in the size of the spleen is found. The contour of the liver usually remains clear and smooth.

Edges can be both sharp and rounded. In the severe course, accompanied by the presence of foci of necrosis, the parenchyma has a heterogeneous structure due to the appearance of multiple areas of reduced echogenicity alternating with fragments of unchanged parenchyma. With significant swelling of the liver tissue, its echogenicity is reduced to a greater extent.

Organ conduction is often increased; as a result, the vascular pattern becomes clearer, and the walls of the portal vein more contrasting. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes in the area of the hepatoduodenal ligament may be of some help in making a diagnosis.

As a rule, on ultrasound in chronic hepatitis, an increase in the size of the liver due to the right and left lobes is observed, a rounding of the edges and an increase in the angles formed by them can be observed. The contour of the liver often remains clear and smooth. The structure of the parenchyma is usually diffusely heterogeneous, the echo is increased, and the sound conductivity is reduced in most cases. There is also a progressive impoverishment of the vascular pattern. In chronic hepatitis, diffuse liver damage was found only in 2/3 cases, which, according to the ultrasound labs, is due to the absence in most cases of fairly pronounced fibrosis and/or steatosis.

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities is a special method that allows a non-invasive method to examine the blood flow in the veins of the legs. This kind of examination is painless, quick and easy. These characteristics allow ultrasound Doppler sonography of the vessels of the lower extremities, even for children. After all, it does not deliver discomfort to the baby.

Since color Doppler test of the lower extremities is a method with which you can monitor the correct functioning of the circulatory system, the procedure allows you to detect a lot of disorders and possible pathologies.

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities gives the opportunity to see:

  • Presence of vascular damage in the early stages.
  • The development of compression lumen in the arteries assesses its scope and significance.
  • In what condition are the walls of blood vessels: whether there is a change in tone, decrease or increase in pressure, violations of elasticity?
  • Does the condition of the veins and arteries of the legs normal?
  • As a result of the ultrasound of veins, you get a complete picture of how even the blood flow is, whether there are changes and disturbances in the system, what nature they have, and what can cause the development of pathologies.
  • Any research manipulations are not assigned without a cause; vein Doppler sonography is no exception. Various indications are an alarming sign about the possible need for a survey.

Doppler vein of the lower extremities is useful for:

People who have found atherosclerosis in the arteries and veins in the body. If a person is diagnosed with atherosclerosis, which is not found in the vessels of the legs, you should still undergo an additional examination to exclude his appearance in the limbs.

With pain in the calf muscles. As you know, pain does not appear just like that. The presence of pain or cramps can talk about violations of the circulatory system, requiring diagnosis.

Patients who observe swelling and redness of the limbs, or vice versa the legs get cold, and the skin turns blue. The presence of these symptoms may be due to the development of atherosclerosis or the appearance of an inflammatory process in the vessels.

With the manifestation of varicose veins and vascular nodes. In this case, the USDG of the veins of the lower extremities is prescribed for the initial examination and as a diagnosis immediately before the surgical intervention.

Doppler application

The techniques are used for the differential (distinguishing) diagnosis of organic pathology (when there are real changes in organs and tissues) and mental disorders (when such changes are minimal or absent). Ultrasound is safe for the patient.

With the help of Doppler ultrasound In Delhi, vascular disorders can be identified. For example, you can diagnose their abnormalities, atherosclerotic plaques, blood supply deficiency, which cause the following symptoms:

  • Noise in the head;
  • Bouts of pain like a migraine (pain in one half of the head), as well as continuous cluster headache;
  • Short-term loss of consciousness (also called syncopal states);
  • Fainting and pre-unconscious sensations;
  • Deterioration of health in response to changes in atmospheric pressure and other meteorological conditions.

What is a Fetal Ultrasound ?

Ultrasound examination is a type of examination, which is carried out on a particular apparatus - a sonograph, which radiates high-frequency waves. This analysis allows determining the presence of pathologies of various organs.

Since ultrasound is one of the safest types of research, it can be used to examine pregnant women. In the period of gestation, up to 5 planned ultrasound examinations can be performed at various times, measured in weeks:

  1. At 5-7 week: allows you to diagnose the presence of pregnancy
  2. At 11–13: the development of the fetus, the presence or absence of pathologies, the state of the placenta is assessed
  3. At 19-21: the size of the fetus, the development of its heart, the presence of amniotic fluid in the placenta, and the sex of the baby are determined
  4. 32–34: important here are the parameters such as the degree of umbilical cord development, weight, and size of the fetus, commensurability of the size of the birth canal and the head of the baby

Before childbirth (during the first contractions or at the time of discharge of amniotic fluid): with such an ultrasound, the probability of complications during childbirth is determined.

Doppler ultrasound cost allows us to consider the structure of the circulatory system of the fetus and the presence of pathologies in it, as well as blood flow velocity and impaired functioning of the placenta. The vessels are displayed on the ultrasound results in different colors. This analysis is recommended to apply on the 12th or 20th week of carrying a child.

4D ultrasound of the fetal organs shows a spatial image in real time. So you can see and evaluate the correctness of the internal organs of the fetus. If a pregnant woman has lower abdominal pain or bleeding, the doctor may prescribe an unscheduled ultrasound scan to prevent complications.

Interpretation of ultrasound of the fetus

To interpret the results of the ultrasound, special tables of values are used, since the parameters of the fetus at different stages of its development differ.

The main criteria are:

The quality of the development of the placenta:

  • Maturity
  • How is it attached?
  • The general state of development
  • Thickness
  • Amniotic fluid volume
  • The size of the unborn child

Ultrasound test price in Noida allows identifying such pathologies in the development of the fetus, such as:

  • Down syndrome - this disease occurs due to the presence of an extra chromosome in the genome, which causes developmental delays and other disruptions in the functioning of the body.
  • Anencephaly- characterized by a complete or partial absence of the cerebral hemispheres and skull bones
  • Heart disease - a congenital disability of the myocardial wall, as well as large vessels
  • Spina bifida (including myelomeningocele and others) - the state of the spine, which is characterized by incomplete closure of the neural tube in the partially unformed spinal cord (spina bifida); with this form of the disease, as myelomeningocele, the brain and nerve roots exit to the outside (hernia of the spinal cord)
  • Hydrocephalus - excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal (cerebrospinal) fluid in the cranial cavity
  • Contamination (atresia) of the duodenum - characterized by the absence of a lumen in one of the sections of the intestine

It is important to remember that regular passage of prophylactic ultrasounds during pregnancy will help identify possible pathologies and work out effective treatment tactics.

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