Thyroid disease is a disease that affects the thyroid gland. Sometimes the body makes too much or too little thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, the way the body uses energy and affects almost every organ in the body. Too many thyroid hormones are called hyperthyroidism and can cause many body functions to speed up. Too few thyroid hormones called hypothyroidism and can cause many body functions to slow down requiring to have thyroid test.
Thyroid hormones play an important role during pregnancy and in the development of a healthy child and the preservation of the mother's health during pregnancy and hypothyroidism.
Women having thyroid problems can have a healthy pregnancy and safeguard their fetuses' health, learning about the effect of pregnancy on the thyroid gland, keeping current on their testing of thyroid function, and also taking the necessary medications.
A blood test includes blood sampling at the office of a health care provider or a commercial facility and sending samples to a laboratory for analysis. Diagnostic blood tests may include:
- TSH test. If the symptoms of a pregnant woman suggest hyperthyroidism, her doctor will probably, first of all, perform a hypersensitive TSH test. This test detects even small amounts of TSH in the blood and is the most accurate indicator of thyroid activity available. Typically, hyperthyroidism is indicated below normal TSH levels. However, low levels of TSH can also occur in normal pregnancy, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, due to a slight increase in thyroid hormones from HCG.
- T3 and T-4 test. If the TSH level is low, another blood test is performed to measure T3 and T4. The increased level of free T4- part of thyroid hormones is not attached to the thyroid gland-binding protein-confirming the diagnosis. Rarely, in women with hyperthyroidism, free T4 levels may be normal, but T3 at high levels. Because normal pregnancy-related changes in thyroid function, test results should be interpreted with caution.
- TSI test. If a woman has a disease or has had surgery or radioactive iodine treatment for the disease, her doctor can check her blood for TSI antibodies.
What to remember?
Thyroid disease is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland produces more or less thyroid hormones than the body needs.
- Pregnancy results in normal changes in thyroid function, but can also result in having thyroid disease.
- Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can also affect the mother and unborn baby negatively.
- During pregnancy, mild hyperthyroidism does not require treatment. More serious hyperthyroidism is treated with anti-thyroid drugs that act by interfering with the production of thyroid hormones.
- Uncontrolled hypothyroidism at the time of having pregnancy can also lead to severe health issues in the mother and can affect fetal growth and brain development.
- The treatment of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is done with the thyroid tests having synthetic thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).
- Postpartum thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid gland, causes a short period of hyperthyroidism, often accompanied by hypothyroidism, which usually goes away within a year. Sometimes hypothyroidism is permanent.