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What Is Ovarian Cancer? How Is It Detected?

Ovarian cancer originates in the ovary, one of the two female reproductive organs located in the pelvis, on each side of the uterus. Ovules or eggs are formed in the ovaries.

Most cases of ovarian cancer happen in women over 55 years of age. The most important risk elements are age and family history. Women who have never been pregnant also present a higher risk. Women with a mutation in the BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 genes have a higher risk of ovarian cancer (in addition to the higher risk of breast cancer).

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed and evaluated?

Your physician will start by asking about your medical history and symptoms. You will also have a physical exam that includes a pelvic exam. If you have any symptoms that suggest the presence of ovarian cancer, you may have the following tests:

  • The pelvic ultrasound: takes help of sound waves to produce images of structures and organs of the pelvis waves, and can help identify uterine or ovarian cancers. In a transvaginal ultrasound, a probe is attached into the vagina to get a better view of the uterus and ovaries.
  • The abdominal and pelvic CT: taking pictures of the entire abdominal cavity, and is used to help treat the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and to detect ovarian cancer. Generally, an injection of contrast material, as well as an oral contrast, is used to increase the visibility of the lymph nodes and other tissues at the time of CT Scan Abdomen.

The laparoscope is carried out using a thin, lighted tube also known as a laparoscope that is injected through a small cut in the abdomen, to check for evidence of the presence of cancer.

If the presence of cancer is detected, imaging studies are generally useful to decide the extent of the tumor present in the abdomen, and if cancer has spread. To help determine the stage of the disease, the following imaging studies can be performed:

  • The CT of the body: (if it has not been previously done) takes a series of detailed images of your pelvis, abdomen or chest. An injection of contrast material and oral contrast can be used to improve the visibility of lymph nodes and other tissues.
  • Although it is less common, the MRI of the body can be used to produce detailed images of the uterus, lymph nodes, and other tissues in the abdomen and pelvis at the time of the exam. A CT scan can easily detect cancer in the lymph nodes, lungs, or elsewhere. An injection of contrast material can also be used to increase the visibility of the lymph nodes and other tissues during the examination. See the Security page for more information about contrast materials.
  • The PET/CT is an imaging examination of nuclear medicine employing a small amount of radioactive material to help determine the extent or treatment of various diseases, including cancer. PET CT scans can be linked with CT or MRI to create special views that can lead to more accurate and accurate diagnoses. PET / CT can be used to evaluate the response of ovarian cancer to therapies such as chemotherapy.
  • The X-ray of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GI) is an X-ray of the large intestine (colon). The lower gastrointestinal tract has barium using a flexible tube that is inserted through the rectum to better visualize the possible spread of cancer in the digestive tract.
The Different Applications Of Ultrasound

Recognized primarily to observe a fetus during pregnancy, ultrasound is also used to examine a health problem related to the part of the anatomy or an organ.

Embryo evaluation: first trimester.

Ultrasound of the first trimester usually translates into transvaginal transducers, and the difficulties to move them, it is usually difficult to obtain the plane of the desired image. With the technology of 3D ultrasound, it is possible to see any plane within a volume acquired with the transvaginal probe.

Evaluation of the fetus.

Fetal ultrasound can offer information about development and detect congenital fetal anomalies. In addition, it can be useful for families excluding anomalies. Fetal ultrasound is useful for the range of anomalies, skeletal, thoracic, cardiac and abdominal, genitourinary and other. The advantages offered by 3D ultrasound arise from the images and the volumetric representations derived from the data of the volume studied.

The main utility of the ultra-sonographic examinations in gynecology is the detection of affections. Mainly transabdominal and transvaginal probes are used. In addition, 3D ultrasound is usually used as a complement to 2D ultrasound, in order to evaluate a specific area, such as the uterus or the ovaries.

Obtaining good quality ultrasound images in the bladder is relatively easy if it is moderately full because then it is closer to the transducer and few interposed structures prevent its visualization. Identifying intraluminal, mural and perivesical pathology is possible.

Genitourinary system.

The usefulness of ultrasound to study DTPA renal scan and the male and female reproductive organs is well established. It is an excellent technique to demonstrate most pathologies quickly, painlessly and non-invasively. The renal masses can be detected and characterized, the diffuse renal pathology can be shown, and the renal parenchyma can be measured. It allows precise guidance of biopsies and other kidney operations.

The decrease in the size of transducers has made it possible to couple them to catheters and introduce them into various tubular structures of the body, such as the ureter, bladder, and urethra, usually in the course of endoscopic explorations.

In the abdominal examination, the manual of the technique is more used, with different types of transducers. The scanners, however, are subject to a large number of artifacts, by the same fact of performing the manual exploration, by the organs that appear as the stomach or the intestines, the respiratory movements, as well as the rights by the vessels and the heartbeat.

Vascular system

One of the most important areas in imaging studies in medicine is the reference to blood flow and vascular anatomy. The prevalence and severity of vascular pathology increase with age and as the population continue to grow above 65 years of age, so do the number of vascular ultrasounds performed. Other diagnostic imaging tests (contrast angiography, angio-MRI, electron beam tomography (EL), computed tomography (CT), and synchrotron) usually only offer images of permeable light. Ultrasound has come to play a crucial role in vascular studies because it is non-invasive, inexpensive and thanks to technological advances and contrast media.

Risk preeclampsia? Doppler ultrasound makes sense

Preventative appointments during pregnancy should provide the best possible control of your health and the healthy development of your unborn child. Science strives for the continuous development of medical procedures. A recognized examination method is ultrasound.

Now the researchers have succeeded in using Doppler ultrasound to detect a known risk factor for preterm birth. To get complete health care services, one must know doppler ultrasound cost.

One of the most common causes of prematurity_ Preeclampsia

In some women, an immune reaction already develops in early pregnancy, which leads to malformation of the blood vessels in the placenta. The circulation of the nutcake is thereby disturbed - via messenger substances; this is reported back to the cardiovascular system. To provide the unborn child with enough blood, the body responds by increasing blood pressure.

This disease is called preeclampsia. Symptoms include:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • blurred vision

Preeclampsia can become very dangerous during pregnancy. It gets too little blood to the child; it creates a life-threatening situation. The only countermeasure of the pregnant woman's body is a further increase in blood pressure. As soon as the mother's body can no longer supply enough blood to the baby, the contractions are prematurely initiated. Either it comes to premature birth, or the blood pressure is increased again so that the pregnant woman herself is in mortal danger. One must get an idea about ultrasound test cost in Noida to prevent the chances of premature preeclampsia. In case of risk factors Doppler ultrasound examination is advisable.

Although the causes are not yet clearly understood, factors are identified that indicate a possible development of preeclampsia. These are:

- Age (older than 35 years or younger than 18 years)

- Overweight (BMI > 30)

- Chronic diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, coagulation disorders)

- Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy or in the family

- multiple pregnancies

So far, the diagnostic options for preeclampsia were not mature, so that it was often found only when symptoms occurred. This has usually made medical treatment difficult - not infrequently had the pregnancy (prematurely) by an (emergency) childbirth be terminated. Thus, preeclampsia is the cause of up to 50 percent of premature births.

Meanwhile, a diagnosis through Doppler ultrasound is already possible in the 11th to 13th week of pregnancy. With this method, the speed of the flowing blood is measured. It is checked whether the circulation of the placenta is disturbed. One should also go for abdominal ultrasound cost in Delhi to get an idea about the risk factors of fetus development.

To counteract a worsening of blood coagulation in the mother cake, early intake of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is necessary. Thus, the aggravation of preeclampsia can be prevented. However, one should remember that the dose of the drug must begin before the 16th week. Otherwise, it will be ineffective. Early onset of drug treatment improves the child's blood supply and can significantly prolong pregnancy in many cases.

Hope! It helped you.

Nephropathy: Kidney Damage In Diabetes

The kidneys perform vital tasks in the human body. One of them is the formation of urine (urine). With this, the organism eliminates toxins and waste products of the metabolism, which filter the blood from urine. Also, the nephrons are involved in the control of the salt and water balance, affect the blood pressure and secrete essential hormones like erythropoietin for the formation of RBC’s.

Diabetes damages tiny vessels in the kidneys

For the filtration process, countless small balls of blood vessels are responsible, the kidney corpuscles. Persistently elevated blood sugar in diabetes damages the inner walls of blood vessels of these nephric filters. This permanently affects the filtering performance of the kidneys. Kidney function test can help you in checking the severity of renal damage.

This kidney damage, also called diabetic nephropathy, is favored by other typical side effects of diabetes. These include high blood pressure and lipid metabolism disorders. These not only promote the development of nephropathy but also accelerate their progression.

Kidney failure threatens

If nephropathy is too late or left untreated, the kidneys may fail their service. In the advanced stage of such renal insufficiency, patients are referred for a lifelong regular blood wash (dialysis) or kidney transplantation.

Kidney damage can occur at an early stage of diabetes and initially causes no discomfort. Symptoms usually show up only when the kidneys are already severely impaired. The best idea is to go for DPTA renal scan if you experience any pain during urination.

Diagnosis of diabetic kidney damage

Elevated urinary albumin levels may indicate diabetic kidney damage. A doctor can detect the protein in the laboratory based on a morning urine sample. If the albumin-creatinine quotient determined in this case is more than 30 mg albumin / g creatinine in women and more than 20 mg albumin / g creatinine in men, there is a suspicion of albuminuria and thus kidney damage. Since the albumin levels are subject to natural fluctuations and may be increased for reasons other than nephropathy, a second test must confirm the result. If there is no increased concentration, a third sample is necessary.

If KFT test confirms the suspicion of kidney damage, the doctor may initiate further investigations to make a more accurate diagnosis. The sooner diabetic nephropathy is recognized, the better are the chances of treatment. People with diabetes should, therefore, have their urine tested for protein once a year. In type 1 diabetes from the fifth year of illness, in type 2 diabetes from the time of diagnosis. After all, the latter type of diabetes has been causing unnatural damage in the body for many years until a doctor discovers it.

Other organs endangered

If there is evidence of kidney damage, sufferers should be thoroughly examined. On one hand, there may be a number of causes that require treatment - even those that have nothing to do with diabetes. On the other hand, in diabetic nephropathy often vessels in other areas of the body are damaged, so there may be more complications. Especially the eyes are often affected. But heart, vessels or legs should be checked.

For therapy, the doctor prescribes preferably drugs from the group of ACE inhibitors or AT1 blockers in case of intolerance. Well-adjusted values for blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids can also help prevent further damage to the vessels.

What Are The Various Applications Of MRI Testing?

Medical resonance imaging or MRI is a common examination that allows you to explore the inside of the body with precision. Compared to conventional radiology, MRI allows to perfectly visualize most abnormalities, malformations or tumors present in a tissue. The images have quality much higher than radiography called "banal", but this quality of images still remains lower than that of the scanner. We will use MRI for organs or tissues that have more water, which will allow a more accurate diagnosis, especially between infections or tumors. It can be differentiated thanks to the different shades offered by the MRI done by MRI Scan Centre.

1. Breast MRI.

In recent years, breast cancer screening has been favored thanks to MRI. Indeed, this being sensitive, it obtains results very favorable to "this exercise". According to an American researcher, MRI may even be superior to mammography when screening for breast abnormalities. The MRI can also tell if the abnormality needs to be treated or not.

2. Brain MRI

MRI is mainly used to detect abnormalities in the blood vessels in the brain, but also to detect abnormalities in the brain itself. MRI allows different sections (transverse, longitudinal or oblique) to be made. Whenever possible, try not to inject contrast medium. Gadolinium (contrast medium) is exclusively used for MRI because it is injected by "intravenous". The detection of malformation of the brain structure, or abnormalities of its contour are in most cases detected. The advantage is that it allows in addition to detect its origin, as well as its nature (vascular, degenerative, tumoral, inflammatory, or infectious).

3. Bone or ligament MRI

When MRI is used for this type of "problem", it can be noted that it is often for back problems (vertebrae) that patients come for an MRI. Experts have told us that these patients made up two-thirds of the bone or ligament MRI.

4. Hepatic MRI

The main studies of this MRI are the anatomy, as well as the vascularization of certain organs, more particularly the liver, subject to abnormalities such as cancer, angiomas (malformation of the vascular system of the liver), or the adenoma (tumor benign (non-cancerous) due to the proliferation of a normal glandular tissue). A contrast product is specifically dedicated to the liver, ferrite because it is iron-based.

5. MRI in the future.

Derivatives have emerged such as MRI, which is functional magnetic resonance imaging. This new technique allows the study of the specific functions of the brain that intervene in the execution of these different tasks (taste, smell, and reading, listening). This replaces more and more PET: positron emission tomography (positive electrons) which uses radioactive tracers to detect cognitive activity (the intrinsic intellectual activity of the brain). Unlike PET, which can only be used once on the same patient (because of positron irradiation), MRI can be done several times because the marker is blood oxygenation which is a natural phenomenon of the body and that there is no radiation emitted on the patient.

Tests To Find Stomach Cancer

In general, stomach cancer is detected when a person goes to the doctor because of signs or symptoms. The doctor will record the medical history and test the patient. If stomach cancer is detected, tests will be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Medical history and medical examination

When preparing your medical history, the doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms (eating problems, pain, or abdominal swelling, etc.) and possible risk factors to see if they could suggest the presence of stomach cancer or other cause. The medical examination provides your doctor with information about your general health status, possible signs of stomach cancer and other health problems. The doctor will palpate, in particular, your abdomen, to determine if there are abnormal changes.

Endoscopic ultrasound

In endoscopic ultrasound test, a small transducer is placed on the tip of an endoscope. While you are sedated, the endoscope is used down the throat into the stomach. In this way, the transducer is located directly on the wall of the stomach where the cancer is located. The doctor can see the layers of the stomach wall, as well as nearby lymph nodes and other structures just outside the stomach.

Biopsy

Biopsies to find out if it is stomach cancer are done more frequently during an upper endoscopy. If during the endoscopy the doctor observes any abnormal area in the lining of the stomach, instruments can be passed by the endoscope to take samples and then perform a biopsy.

Imaging studies

The imaging using sound waves, X-rays, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or radioactive imaging inside the body substances. Imaging studies can be performed for several reasons, including:

  • To help determine if an area that causes suspicion could be cancerous
  • Know how far cancer spread
  • Help determine if the treatment has been effective

Computed tomography

Computed tomography shows the stomach quite clearly, and can often confirm the location of cancer. In addition, it can show organs adjacent to the stomach, such as the liver, as well as lymph nodes and distant organs where there might be cancer spread. CT can help determine the extent (stage) of cancer, and if surgery can be a good treatment option.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Like CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images show detailed images of the soft tissues of the body. However, MRIs use radio waves and powerful magnets instead of X-rays.

Positron emission tomography

PET images are not as detailed as CT or MRI images, but PET can detect possible regions of cancer spread in all areas of the body at the same time. Sometimes PET is useful if your doctor thinks that cancer has spread, but does not know where. The image is not as detailed as a CT or an MRI, but it provides useful information about the entire body.

Chest x-ray

A chest x-ray can show if cancer has spread to the lungs. It could also determine if there are serious diseases of the lungs or heart. This study is not needed if a CT scan of the chest has been done by CT scan centre.

How Much Liver does a Person Need? A liver Function Test Provides Information

The liver has an excellent characteristic: it is the only human organ capable of "re-growing." This is of great benefit, for example in case of cancerous activity. However, how much of the liver can be removed without risking liver failure depends on the functioning of organ. With the liver function test, the hepatic function can be tested, and the operation planned precisely.

In which diseases is a partial removal of the liver necessary?

The most common cause is liver metastasis, i.e., offspring of a tumor in the liver. Less common are primary forms of cancer that originate from the liver, namely bile duct cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. They usually occur in organs that are already damaged, often by chronic liver cell inflammation (hepatitis) or long-term alcohol consumption.

Also, there are benign diseases such as liver cysts or hemangiomas. These can become so large that they press on surrounding organs such as the stomach and need to be operated on. To get rid of them, one must know about LFT test cost to spend a healthy lifestyle.

Why is it essential to test their function before partial liver removal?

In contrast to the large intestine, where it is less critical to remove 5 centimeters, more or less, one can remove too much from a liver. If this is the case, the patient has hepatic hypofunction and often needs to know about Liver Function Test cost in Delhi.

How much liver does a person need?

That depends on their functionality, which makes the use of the test so exciting and useful. About 75 percent can be removed from a completely healthy liver. Hepatic cells show specific pathological changes, be it a slight fatty degeneration, liver inflammation, liver fibrosis (remodeling of liver tissue in connective tissue) or even liver cirrhosis (liver shrinkage). The sicker the liver is, the less it performs and the less the surgeon may remove. LFT Test cost in Delhi can help you in determining the severity of the disease.

How does the test work?

The patient is injected with a volume-adjusted amount of the drug 13C-methacetin via a vein. This remedy then "floats" on the liver, which metabolizes it. Functioning liver cells convert this drug into paracetamol and 13CO2 relatively quickly. The 13CO2 is released and measured again via the breathing air. The device displays this on a graph. Once the maximum is reached, the test can be stopped. The test usually takes 30 to 40 minutes. With cirrhosis of the liver, it can last up to an hour, and the curve can be quite flat, as the liver has far more trouble metabolizing the drug.

In which cases do you have high liver function values?

In metastasis surgery, this often applies, that is, if it is offspring of another tumor in the liver. Often the liver function is still so intact that you can remove about three-quarters of the liver. By contrast, in primary liver cancer, the role of the liver is usually so limited that surgery is no longer possible and only drug therapies or alternative therapies can be used.

Complete Blood Count Test During Pregnancy: Importance & Tests Results

or those who fear blood tests, you will have to be brave! Your pregnancy will be punctuated by blood tests that are intended to determine your immunity against certain diseases, your blood type and highlight any deficiencies.

The first blood test to confirm the pregnancy

The pregnancy test you just performed is positive!  Before you run to the doctor, take a blood test to confirm your pregnancy: more reliable than urine, it can be done even before the rule, from the second week after conception. It allows to measure the hormone secreted by the embryo after implantation in the uterus, β-HCG. For CBC ESR pregnancy in Delhi, you need to go to a medical analysis laboratory.

Blood tests to be done before conception

Since the late 1970s, the toxoplasmosis and rubella are subject to a mandatory screening program. At the time, they were even part of a prenuptial certificate at the time of marriage.

Since 2008, screening tests for these two diseases are prescribed during the first pregnancy consultation, or even just before conception. The idea is to achieve them even before being pregnant. The HIV test remains optional, as is the test for serum markers. One can go for Vitamin 25 oh cost in Delhi to get complete information about healthy delivery.

Blood tests of the 3rd month of pregnancy

During the 3rd month of pregnancy, during the prenatal consultation, your doctor will issue you a prescription to perform several other blood tests in the laboratory.

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP AND RH FACTOR

During these blood tests, the blood group and the Rhesus factor of the mother and, sometimes, of the father are sought. It is essential to know them in case of blood transfusion during childbirth.

It is also a question of anticipating the incompatibilities of Rhesus. If the mother is Rh negative and the father of Rh positive, the child may be Rh positive and therefore incompatible with his mother. The immune system of the latter will then consider the fetus as a foreign body and produce antibodies against it. This justifies monitoring the fetus to detect anemia caused by the mother's antibodies.

SEARCH FOR ANEMIA AND DEFICIENCIES

The blood test also includes the count of the blood cells. It helps prevent anemia in the mother who needs a diet that is richer in iron.

SCREENING FOR TRISOMY 21

The combined screening for trisomy 21 is also available. It must be performed between 11 weeks of amenorrhea and 13 weeks of amenorrhea+6 days.

This blood test (or assay of serum markers) helps to give an indication of the risk of trisomy 21. One must know about CBC with ESR cost in Delhi to get 360-degree health care of the mother and child.

Blood tests of the 5th month of pregnancy

The screening gestational diabetes himself is only offered to women at risk in the 5th month of pregnancy.

Blood tests of the 6th month of pregnancy

SEROLOGY OF HEPATITIS B

Finally, the serology of hepatitis B, performed in the sixth month of pregnancy.

It is mandatory at this stage of pregnancy, because if the mother is carrying the virus, she may transmit it at the time of delivery or during breastfeeding. In this case, the baby will have to have a treatment at birth which associates the traditional vaccination with the injection of specific anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulins.

SEARCH FOR ANEMIA AND DEFICIENCIES

During your follow-up visit for the 6th month, a blood test may be required to check for anemia (blood cell numbering). CBC Test Cost follow-up throughout the pregnancy makes it possible to anticipate the problems and to supervise mother and child for nine months to guarantee their good health.

Assessment of Liver Function

The term "liver function tests" is misleading as most of these tests detect inflammation or liver damage, they do not actually explore the metabolic or secretory functions of liver bile (Liver: Functions of the liver). Such inflammation or lesions may be present even before the liver functions are affected. Liver function tests are blood tests that are a non-invasive way to look for the presence of liver disease (e.g., hepatitis in a blood donation) and to measure the severity and progression of an illness of the liver and its response to treatment.

Laboratory analyses are generally effective for:

  • Detect inflammation, lesions or liver dysfunction
  • Assess the severity of a liver injury
  • Monitor the evolution of the liver disease and the response to a person's treatment

Specify the diagnosis

Hepatic tests are performed on blood samples and measure the levels of enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver. These substances include:

  • Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT)
  • Albumin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Alpha-fetoprotein
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Bilirubin
  • Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gamma-GT)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • 5'-nucleotidase

The level of some of these substances makes it possible to evaluate whether the liver performs its normal functions of protein production and bile secretion. The level of other substances can detect the presence and degree of inflammation of the liver. What is a normal value for many of these tests can be found in Blood tests? However, the values can sometimes be much higher than normal, usually because a person has another disease.

Why do a liver test?

The LFT test allows, on the one hand, research a possible abnormal liver function, on the other hand, to specify the nature of the anomaly highlighted to understand the origin of the attack better. Among different types of liver dysfunction, we distinguish different syndromes, the main ones of which are hepatic insufficiency (or hepatocellular insufficiency), cytolysis, cholestasis (with or without jaundice) and inflammation. Once the diagnosis is made, the repetition dosages can then monitor the evolution of the anomaly.

What are the examinations required for a liver assessment?

  • Liver function tests include the determination of several enzymes, relatively specific to the liver and manufactured (at least partially) by the liver: transaminase (SGPT or ALT and SGOT or AST) the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) the gamma-GlutamylTranspeptidase (gamma -GT) bilirubin
  • Other assays are less specific reflections of liver activity but are also markers of hepatic metabolism.
  • The determination of blood cholesterol (cholesterolemia): the liver essentially makes cholesterol. Its rate may be increased in case of cholestasis, decreased in the case of hepatocellular insufficiency.
  • The albumin dosage: it is a protein made by the liver. Its concentration in the blood is an indirect reflection (and not specific) of the good functioning of the liver. A decrease in its rate rather evokes a hepatocellular insufficiency.
  • Fibrinogen: it is a protein made by the liver. A decrease in the level of blood fibrinogen can be observed sometimes in case of hepatic insufficiency.
  • The electrophoresis of the proteins: it is a technique which makes it possible to observe a decrease or a relative or absolute increase of each class of proteins. In particular, it evaluates the proper functioning of the liver.
  • The prothrombin (PT) level: The prothrombin rate (or the prothrombin time) is a measure of the blood's coagulation rate. It indirectly helps to evaluate the state of the liver, since coagulation proteins are made in the liver. Prolongation of TP may indicate hepatocellular failure.
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