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Blog posts of '2019' 'March'

PET-Scan (Tomography), What is it?

The PET-Scan, whose name comes from the English "positron emission tomography," is a nuclear medicine exam often called PET or positron emission tomography. Like scintigraphy, it consists of analyzing the functioning of an organ or a structure of the body using a contrast product injected into the patient. The radiotracer reacts in a certain way by meeting the organs and in the presence of an anomaly.

Images of these reactions are captured by a machine and reproduced on a computer screen. The three-dimensional reconstruction makes it possible to visualize the zones of high concentration of the tracer (zones in red). The doctor can identify an abnormality or pathology. The main advantage of PET-Scan is that it allows obtaining 3D cuts, which is not the case of scintigraphy. This technique is particularly useful in oncology for detecting or monitoring a tumor.

Why prescribe a tomography?

PET CT scan is mainly prescribed:

  •         In oncology to detect metastases, to know the effectiveness of treatment put in place or to confirm a tumor recurrence when a blood test revealed an increase in tumor markers.
  •         In cardiology to study the functioning of the myocardium (for example after a heart attack) or coronary arteries
  •         In neurology to confirm the presence of brain damage and degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease.

There are several tracers. The choice of doctor depends on the pathology sought or the type of tumor.

How does a PET scan work?

In total, the PET scan takes about two hours. Intravenous injection of the radioactive substance is the first step. The patient remains to lie down, usually one hour. This is the time normally required for the contrast material to enter the body and reach the organs to be examined. The patient, still lying on his back, is then placed for about twenty minutes in a machine equipped with a ring-shaped opening. That's when PET images are made. The results cannot be communicated immediately after the examination because the study of the images takes a certain time.

According to the results of the PET CT examination is determined:

  •         The presence and nature of tumor lesions, recurrence of the disease or metastasis of cancer at an early stage;
  •         The presence of vascular disorders, post-traumatic changes, foci of epilepsy and Parkinsonism in the brain, as well as causes of dementia;
  •         The viability of the myocardium (heart muscle) in ischemic heart disease, congenital heart defects.

What are the risks of PET CT scan?

PET-Scan is a reliable test that has no adverse effect on health. Some mild allergic reactions are sometimes observed at the injection site. It can be achieved during pregnancy. As a precaution, breastfeeding should be stopped for the next 12 hours if the tracer used is 18F-fluorinated fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG).

Is PET-Scan painful?

No, PET-Scan is an entirely painless test except for the bite that can cause temporary itching. Positron emission tomography is the most informative methods used in the diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors, as well as other problems, accompanied by a violation of biochemical processes in various organs and tissues. Today, most cancer centers use a more informative version of the study of PET CT.

 

Recommendations Before Doing a 4D or 5D Ultrasound

Are you going to get a 4D or 5D ultrasound and you do not know how to prepare yourself to be perfect? In that case, take note of the recommendations we give you in this post!

Avoid giving you moisturizer 48/72 hours before your ultrasound 4D or 5D

We know that during pregnancy the use of this product in your tummy is essential to take care of the skin. However, you should know that body creams have a fatty film that produces interference in the ultrasound. This influences the quality of the image, making it difficult to visualize your baby. Therefore, this is one of our main recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound.

Try to drink 2 liters of water every day- 3 or 4 days before

Drink plenty of water the days before your 4d ultrasound test will help make the amniotic fluid clearer. Thanks to this, the ultrasound will provide sharper images.

Bring some sweet or exciting drink on the day of the session

Sometimes babies are on their backs or asleep. In order to get them to move and see their faces better, one of our recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound is to take an ounce of chocolate or coffee, as long as the professional advises.

Take 1.5 liters on the day of your 4D or 5D ultrasound and avoid urinating 15 minutes before

In the same way that it is essential to consume fluids before performing a 4D or 5D ultrasound, it is the same day of the session. Also, it would be preferable if your bladder was half full. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid going to the bathroom at least 15 minutes before the 4D or 5D ultrasound. In this way, you are favoring the visualization of the baby.

Wear comfortable clothes and relax

On the day of your 4D or 5D ultrasound, choose items of clothing that you feel comfortable with during the session. A pair of pants that you can undo and a wide blouse with your tummy to the air would be two great options. Remember that the duration of your 4D or 5D ultrasound will be approximately 30 minutes. Therefore, from Forty Weeks we advise you to relax and enjoy this unique experience!

The importance of knowing when to have a 4D or 5D ultrasound

Finally, one of the best recommendations before your 4D or 5D ultrasound is that you choose when to perform it. The week of pregnancy in which you decide to enjoy this experience will be crucial to get the best viewing of your baby. We remind you that as the pregnancy progresses, your baby is located in the pelvic area, which can hinder the visibility of some parts of your body.

Follow our recommendations and enjoy this day

From Forty Weeks we want you to feel comfortable and be able to see your baby as clearly as possible, so it is essential that you follow these recommendations before your 4d ultrasound test. In case it is not possible to see it, do not worry. Our professionals will teach you different exercises to facilitate the movement of the baby, or we will repeat the session without additional cost. Are you ready to live an extraordinary experience?

 

PET, A Test Increasingly Requested in Oncology But Limited by Its High Price

If you have been treated for cancer, it is normal that you want to do everything possible to ensure that you do not return. But you may not need the tests, and your risks may be greater than the benefits. Below is the reason:

In general, PET-CT scans do not help people who have completed cancer treatments and have no symptoms.

For most cancers, these tests do not help you live longer or have a better quality of life. If you have the tomographies done without a good reason, they can produce anxiety, wrong diagnoses, false alarms, unnecessary procedures, and more costs.

Often, there are better ways to monitor your condition:

  •         It is alert to symptoms that could mean that cancer has returned.
  •         Get regular exams that include a medical history and a medical exam.
  •         For some cancers, there are simple tests you should do, such as mammograms for women who have been treated for breast cancer.
  •         Ask your doctor what proof, if any, is appropriate for your situation.

PET and PET-CT scans have risks.

Performing whole body PET scans Delhi can contribute to stress as a cancer survivor. Often, these tests detect medical problems that are not serious. This could cause more tests and procedures, including follow-up scans, and even biopsies and surgery.

In addition, PET scans, and especially PET-CT scans expose you to high levels of radiation. The effects of radiation accumulate throughout your life. This can increase your risk of cancer. They should not do multiple CT scans unless there is medical evidence that shows they would help you. Ask your consulted doctor if it is a good idea to have multiple CT scans.

So, when is a good idea to have a PET scan after treatment?

A PET scan or PET-CT scan may be helpful if your doctor suspects that your cancer has returned, based on your symptoms, a medical exam or other tests. A CT scan may also be suggested if you were given treatment for advanced cancer, and your doctor needs to find out if your most recent treatment was effective.

Positron emission tomography (known as PET, according to the acronym in English) is the newest of these non-invasive diagnostic techniques introduced within the field of nuclear medicine. PET brings together the most advanced physics, electronics, and computer engineering, disciplines on which it has depended for its development and implementation in clinical practice. But its use is being held back by the high price of the test.

The latest generation scanners of PET CT scan are not claustrophobic for the patient and allow obtaining high-quality full body images in a reasonable time of 30 to 60 minutes. The PET obtains images of the whole organism thanks to the action of diverse molecules marked with isotopes (radioactive drugs) emitting positrons (subatomic particles), which have been previously injected to the patient by the intravenous route.

 

When Do I Need to Undergo a LFT ?

Liver testing for diseases is also carried out during pregnancy (ideally at the planning stage), before surgery and a course of treatment involving the administration of potent drugs.

When can an LFT test be required? It is recommended to regularly examine the most important organs and systems of the body for prophylactic purposes. But there are a number of symptoms that signal that verification is required as quickly as possible. Thus, the liver should be examined immediately if you notice the following signs of organ dysfunction:

Discomfort in the lower pair of ribs on the right is one of the first manifestations of liver problems. Barely noticeable nagging pains, tingling may accompany unusual sensations and a feeling of constriction or overcrowding in the area of the liver. Usually, they make themselves felt when laughing, talking loudly or shouting, sneezing, sharp sideways, lifting weights, as well as after eating fatty, smoked, fried or spicy foods. At first, a new feeling may not cause pain or tangible discomfort- in this case; they also say: “I found out where the liver is.” This is a reason to be wary, because even mild symptoms may indicate the initial stage of the serious hepatic disease.

The liver is enlarged. The change in the dimensions of the main gland is accurately recorded by ultrasound, but you can notice the changes yourself. This will indicate a bulging belly without an increase in overall fullness and with virtually no weight gain. The especially noticeable symptom in people with thin physique.

Unpleasant taste in the mouth. Patients with chronic liver problems have a constant dry mouth and bitterness on the tongue, sometimes with a characteristic flavor that is defined as “copper.” At the same time, an astringent feeling is noted in the mouth; taste sensations are reduced. Habitual food can cause rejection, even nausea and the urge to vomit.

Weight loss on the background of the asthenic syndrome. This symptom is largely a consequence of the previous one. Food rejection, loss of taste, nausea lead to a decrease in diet, which leads to weight loss. At the same time, the patient complains of unreasonable irritability, as well as weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, because the body's energy requirements are not met, and the toxic effects of impaired nitrogenous (protein) metabolism greatly increase- with an increased concentration of ammonia in the blood, secondary (hepatic) hyperammonemia occurs.

Jaundice is a common complex of symptoms, which is expressed in the yellowness of the skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes, as well as in dark urine, itching, and peeling of the skin, in chills, bone, and joint pain, and is caused by problems with the liver.

What does a liver function test reveal?

  •         The fact of the disease, its degree, the level of liver failure;
  •         The presence and degree of histological (cellular) changes in the structure of the liver tissue, such as fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver;
  •         Diagnosis of specific liver diseases - viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty hepatosis.

 

Low Dose Thoracic CT Scan

Thoracic Pathologies and Radiation Problems

The scanner is the reference diagnostic tool for thoracic pathology. Unlike a standard X-ray, sectional images help to avoid the appearance of shadows. Thanks to the air in the lungs and the contrast media, the resolution is ideal for lung parenchyma examination. In addition, the thoracic scanner has a very high spatial resolution, exceeding the performance of the MRI as part of a health check.

Fast and easy to perform (4 to 5 seconds), CT scan significantly reduces movement artifacts. In addition, the various filters, the software and the 3D reconstructions make it possible to improve the interpretation of the images obtained. Unfortunately, the CT scan shows a very high level of radiation. The low dose chest scanner has been developed to work around this problem.

MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF THE TECHNIQUE

With the low-dose chest CT scan, the primary goal is to obtain usable images with a radiation level equivalent to that of a standard X-ray. The dose is then adjusted according to the age and body size of the subject. The examination thus displays a radiation rate in the order of 1/10th to 1/20th of the 25th percentile of the reference level. Set by the ASCN (Nuclear Safety Authority), this value corresponds to the average dose used in hospitals.

At its lowest level, the low-dose chest CT scan by the best CT scan Centre in Delhi provides satisfactory images for nodule observation or monitoring of problems such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pneumonia, etc. With a slightly increased dose, it can serve as a first-line examination for the management of certain diseases. The examination has been particularly successful in the early diagnosis of bronchial cancer in the context of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST).

The lung scan may be useful for detecting blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), but it has largely been replaced by CT angiography in the diagnosis of this condition. Pulmonary scintigraphy can also be used as a preoperative assessment in people with lung cancer. Pulmonary scintigraphy uses small amounts of a half-life radioactive substance to measure air and blood flow throughout the lungs. In general, the exam is done in two stages.

In the first step (pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy), a radioactive substance is injected into a vein, and the scanner produces an image of the diffusion of this product into the pulmonary bloodstream. If perfusion scintigraphy reveals abnormalities, it is necessary to proceed to a second step (pulmonary ventilation scintigraphy).

INDICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES

The low-dose chest CT scan is particularly interesting because of the quality of the images obtained, its speed and the significant reduction of radiation risks. The technique is mainly used for the early detection of bronchial cancer in a population at risk and the follow-up of various thoracic disorders. Thus, doctors can quickly adjust the treatment of patients, case by case. However, computed tomography poses a significant problem because of CT scan price in Delhi.

Currently, low dose CT screening for lung cancer is four times more expensive than for breast cancer and ten times more expensive than for colon cancer. As a result, it is currently inconceivable to use it for repeated checks. The latter can indeed take several years and generate excessive expenditure for patients and care organizations.

 

IUD and Magnetic Resonance

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that is done on a large device that uses a magnetic field and energy pulses of radio waves to make pictures of the organs and structures inside the abdomen. In many cases, MRI test in east Delhi provides information about body structures that cannot be seen as well with an x-ray, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan.

To start with, it is worth recalling that an IUD is an intrauterine device made of T-shaped plastic that is usually covered with copper. The IUS is a device, similar to the IUD, adding the function of releasing hormones containing levonorgestrel to prevent pregnancy. The IUD / IUS must be implanted inside the woman's uterus through the vagina, is a fast and straightforward procedure. It is the most frequently used reversible contraceptive method in the world.

Most IUDs are composed of plastic with copper wire or fixed with copper strips, while some also have a central core of silver to prevent the fragmentation of copper, and even some minimal part composed of stainless steel. Tests performed, evaluating the interactions of the magnetic field and the heating of the IUD in 3.0 Tesla’s equipment indicate that these objects are safe for patients, not suffering any displacement, artifact or heating.

The IUD is made from non-metallic materials that include polyethylene, barium sulfate (i.e., which makes it opaque to radiation), and silicone. Therefore, it is safe for patients undergoing MRI tests in all intensities of static magnetic fields.

All the publications, reports, studies and articles used for the publication of this entry show that the performance of Magnetic Resonance tests in women carrying an IUD / IUS is safe. There is no risk of movement or displacement of the IUD if a woman with an IUD undergoes an MRI.

However, it is recommended by MRI scan centers in East Delhi that, before performing the MRI, the technician is informed that he/she will perform the test of being an IUD carrier.

If you are interested in whether it is possible to do an MRI with crowns, you need to understand that mainly inert metals are used in dentistry. They do not respond to a magnetic field. Is it possible to do MRI with crowns, if you plan to examine the spine or joints of the arms and legs, pelvis, abdomen? Of course, yes, in this case, the metal will not be affected.

If the crowns are made of gold, copper alloys or steel with gold plating, the images are obtained with certain interference. Therefore, if the patient was engaged in the installation a long time ago when these materials were the most popular, the answer to the question “Is it possible to do MRI with crowns?” Is an answer, but the quality of the images may be poor.

 

Diagnostic Tests, a Picture is Worth a Thousand Words

Everyone has ever expected good news or bad news from the doctor while watching an image in a powerful white light. What is really expected is a diagnosis to which the healthcare professional arrives by using a photograph of the inside of our body. This procedure refers to diagnostic imaging tests.

For more than a hundred years, these techniques have evolved both in the field of nuclear medicine and in the radiological field where differentiating tests such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance, which do not use radiation, and tests such as radiography, scanner and mammography, which does use x-rays.

An image that can save lives

When you go to the Diagnostic Lab in Delhi with a pain in the only thing you think is in the nuisance that generates, hoping that the doctor to say "this is, take this other, and you will feel better.

However, finding the solution is not so easy, since the ailment is not associated with a certain test but rather the doctor selects the diagnostic scan for the image he wants based on the clinical suspicion he has.

Diagnostic radiology imaging tests are:

Radiography: It is a technique with which a diagnosis is achieved through the shades of gray that are observed in the image of a certain anatomical area, by placing it between a photographic plate and an emitter of a minimum amount of ionizing radiation.

The image of X-ray the people have is the broken bone; in their understanding, it is much more complicated. So, the use of X-ray relies on what the doctor wants to notice.

Ultrasound: after applying an always cold transmitting gel, the transducer or instrument that is placed on the area to be studied, emits ultrasound waves whose echo is transformed by the computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image.

Although ultrasound is traditionally associated with fetal controls during pregnancy, it is also the main diagnostic method for imaging the heart or one of the most important tests for the study of the brain of newborns.

The ultrasound is done to see many things: the stones of the gallbladder and kidney, the study of the liver or muscle injuries among other things.

CT, scanner or computerized tomography: In this diagnostic test X-rays are used to generate cross-sectional images of our body, reconstructed by powerful computers from the information sent by the radiation receptors.

Magnetic resonance: normally when this Diagnostic Test in Delhiis performed, the patient is prevented from possessing any metallic element, since magnetic resonance generates dozens of images or cuts of our anatomy through the use of magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves.

Undergo these tests, an informed confidence

Depending on your suspicions about the patient's illness, the doctor can order one or the other of the diagnostic imaging tests analyzed. However, within them, those that can affect the health of the patient by the use of ionizing radiation are radiography, the scanner, and mammography.

The probabilistic effects of these tests, which suppose a greater probability of suffering cancer the greater the received radiation, cannot make forget their benefits, which can improve the health of the patient and even save his life, in exchange for a minimum dose of radiation.

 

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities is a special method that allows a non-invasive method to examine the blood flow in the veins of the legs. This kind of examination is painless, quick and easy. These characteristics allow ultrasound Doppler sonography of the vessels of the lower extremities, even for children. After all, it does not deliver discomfort to the baby.

Since color Doppler test of the lower extremities is a method with which you can monitor the correct functioning of the circulatory system, the procedure allows you to detect a lot of disorders and possible pathologies.

Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities gives the opportunity to see:

  •         Presence of vascular damage in the early stages.
  •         The development of compression lumen in the arteries assesses its scope and significance.
  •         In what condition are the walls of blood vessels: whether there is a change in tone, decrease or increase in pressure, violations of elasticity?
  •         Does the condition of the veins and arteries of the legs normal?
  •         As a result of the ultrasound of veins, you get a complete picture of how even the blood flow is, whether there are changes and disturbances in the system, what nature they have, and what can cause the development of pathologies.
  •         Any research manipulations are not assigned without a cause; vein Doppler sonography is no exception. Various indications are an alarming sign about the possible need for a survey.

Doppler vein of the lower extremities is useful for:

People who have found atherosclerosis in the arteries and veins in the body. If a person is diagnosed with atherosclerosis, which is not found in the vessels of the legs, you should still undergo an additional examination to exclude his appearance in the limbs.

With pain in the calf muscles. As you know, pain does not appear just like that. The presence of pain or cramps can talk about violations of the circulatory system, requiring diagnosis.

Patients who observe swelling and redness of the limbs, or vice versa the legs get cold, and the skin turns blue. The presence of these symptoms may be due to the development of atherosclerosis or the appearance of an inflammatory process in the vessels.

With the manifestation of varicose veins and vascular nodes. In this case, the USDG of the veins of the lower extremities is prescribed for the initial examination and as a diagnosis immediately before the surgical intervention.

Doppler application

The techniques are used for the differential (distinguishing) diagnosis of organic pathology (when there are real changes in organs and tissues) and mental disorders (when such changes are minimal or absent). Ultrasound is safe for the patient.

With the help of Doppler ultrasound In Delhi, vascular disorders can be identified. For example, you can diagnose their abnormalities, atherosclerotic plaques, blood supply deficiency, which cause the following symptoms:

  •         Noise in the head;
  •         Bouts of pain like a migraine (pain in one half of the head), as well as continuous cluster headache;
  •         Short-term loss of consciousness (also called syncopal states);
  •         Fainting and pre-unconscious sensations;
  •         Deterioration of health in response to changes in atmospheric pressure and other meteorological conditions.