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Scanner, MRI, Radio: Which Exam For Which Indication?

Depending on the medical indication, the specificities of the area to be studied, or the profile of the patient, the doctor has a wide choice of medical imaging techniques.

X-ray

Standard radiography uses X-rays that pass through the human body, being more or less absorbed by the tissues according to their density. It allows to obtain two-dimensional images of "full" structures. This technique is, therefore, well suited to the observation of bones and joints. Orthopedics, rheumatology, or orthodontics, use radiography to study trauma (fractures, etc.), skeletal deformities, or the implantation of teeth.

It is also possible to visualize certain organs or hollow parts, usually invisible to X-rays, by "filling" them with an opaque contrast product: this is the contrast radiography.

CT or computed tomography

The scanner, which also uses X-rays, explores the body in volume and thus makes it possible to establish 3D images of organs or tissues scanned: bone, muscles, vessels, or brain. The images obtained are "sectional" images.

The scanner makes it possible to visualize a change of volume or a structural anomaly (tumor, embolism, aneurysm, etc.). It will reveal a narrowing of the coronary arteries in case of chest pain or myocardial infarction. It can also be used in surgery to inform doctors about areas where the intervention is planned, as well as oncology, to control the response to chemotherapy or guide biopsies.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

The MRI allows to visualize the anatomical structure of the body volume. Anatomic MRI is distinguished from functional MRI.

Anatomical MRI is based on the magnetization of hydrogen atoms present wherever there is water and fat. It is, therefore, particularly adapted to the observation of "soft tissues," such as the brain, the spinal cord, the muscles, the tendons, or the viscera (liver, spleen, and kidney).

Functional MRI is based on the measurement of the deoxy-hemoglobin of red blood cells (the hemoglobin devoid of oxygen leaving the organs). It thus makes it possible to follow the influx of oxygenated blood in the organs, and thus it is very used in the cerebrovascular accidents, but also, in neurology, to make the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosisby visiting MRI test labs in Delhi.

Ultrasound

An ultrasound probe emits ultrasound, sound waves imperceptible to the ear, in the direction of a solid object. They bounce off the object and then return to the starting point. The system allows to explore the heart, the viscera (liver, spleen, pancreas, bladder, bladder, kidneys), and the genital tract (ovaries, uterus, prostate). On the other hand, the digestive tract, the lungs, and the bones are not acceptable.

Doppler ultrasound allows the vascular system to be explored with a thinner probe that can be introduced into the vessel lumen. It is indicated for exploratory examinations in diseases of the veins and arteries. It is important to first know Doppler ultrasound cost.

Finally, ultrasounds of pregnancy, which do not present a danger for the foetus, allow its morphology and its environment: amniotic fluid, placenta, cord.

Chest CT Scan: The Best Way To Detect Lung Cancer

Lung cancer treatment is a process planned according to the patient's condition, type and stage of cancer. The treatment plan also takes into account factors such as the patient's general health and age.

If lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, surgical treatment is applied first and the recovery rate is very high. However, if the patient is not eligible for surgery, radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy may be recommended to destroy cancerous cells. Promising results can be obtained from targeted drug therapies in advanced stages of the disease. Deciding which treatment method to use will be increased by a group of specialists.

Lung cancer ranks first among cancer deaths worldwide. Despite the most advanced treatment methods, 86% of the patients die within five years. In the early stage, the probability of five-year survival is around 70%. For this reason, the world of science is making serious efforts to catch lung cancer in the very early stages period when it does not cause any complaint and the person does not need to consult a doctor.

Diagnosis

Tests that examine the lungs are used to detect (find), diagnose and stage non-small cell lung cancer. Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose and stage non-small cell lung cancer are often performed simultaneously. Some of the following tests and procedures can be used:

  • Physical examination and history: A body exam to check the common signs of health including control sings such as lumps, nodes or anything unusual. The doctor will also check the patient’s habits like smoking, work stress, illness and previous treatments or medicine if taken.
  • Laboratory tests- medical procedures that help test blood, urine, tissue or other substances from the body. These tests help in the diagnosis of diseases and further planning and controlling the treatment to monitor the disease over time.
  • Chest X-ray: An x-ray of the organs or bones located inside the chest. These energy beams help creating an image of the areas inside the body.
  • Chest CT scan cost in Delhi: A procedure that helps creating a series of detailed images of different areas within the body such as abdomen, chest. It is taken from different angles.

Who should have a CT scan?

Any patient over 40 years of age and who has smoked significantly (10 cigarettes or more, for 40 years, 20 or more cigarettes a day for 20 years or 40 or more cigarettes a day for 10 years) or smoked less, but with factors of risk of lung cancer: family history of lung cancer, residence for more than one year in the polluted region, occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos or arsenic or personal history of fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema.

Conclusion

Screening for lung cancer is a complex subject. Despite the encouraging results of the NLST study, many uncertainties remain. For this reason, lung cancer screening should not be promoted publicly outside of study protocols. Patients seeking individual screening should be informed in detail of the benefits and risks of screening, and sent at their own expense to multidisciplinary teams experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, who have established standardized procedures to ensure adequate screening. Coordinated and optimal care throughout the screening process.

Despite recommendations published by some expert groups, chest CT scans are still partially experimental and are not currently validated at the population level. It is important to know chest CT scan cost in Delhi before having one.

Renal Failure And Diagnosis

The acute and chronic kidney diseases, arterial hypertension and diabetes, as well as the prolonged use of certain medications and intoxication by some heavy metals, can irreversibly damage the kidneys and lead to a ' renal insufficiency. Any significant kidney damage that lasts more than three months and does not recede with the treatment can be considered chronic, therefore, what we call chronic renal failure is the effect of a progressive and slow decline in the ability of the kidneys to filter the blood and purify it from the waste products of the body's metabolism, especially that of protein substances.

Causes of Renal Failure

Among the causes of renal failure, the most serious are currently diabetes and arterial hypertension because, if not properly controlled, they cause a rapid decrease in renal function.  But they are not the only ones. Among the causes of chronic kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure, we also find:

  • The glomerulonephritis and acute and conical pyelonephritis - inflammation of the small renal blood vessels (glomeruli) and the small tubes (tubules) through which the urine passes to be eliminated
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract often with pyelonephritis, or a strong inflammation that involves all the urinary tract and the kidney itself
  • Autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), in which antirene antibodies irreversibly damage the organ
  • Some renal anomalies such as the presence of polycystic kidney disease.

As a result of these diseases there is an accumulation of waste substances or waste from the metabolism which lead first to the increase in the concentration of nitrogen (azotemia) and other substances in the blood, compromising its optimal balance and making it more acidic. This causes numerous other ailments that we will now see.

The blood and urine tests are essential to confirm the presence of poor renal function." In particular, for the complete diagnosis of renal insufficiency we perform:

Blood and urinary tests

Renal ultrasound test

Possible renal biopsy, KFT (Kidney function test), or the removal of a tissue sample from a kidney for examination (it could be the most accurate test, but it is not advisable if the results of an ultrasound examination show that the kidneys are small and with scars).

Urinalysis can detect the presence of proteins, abnormal cells and other problems. Azotaemia and above all, creatininemia (which analysescreatine, a substance contained in the muscles, present in the blood) are the best indicators for assessing the degree of renal failure (based on renal filtration capacity). Furthermore, there may be other blood changes- such as increased potassium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone in the blood, decrease in calcium, calcitriol and vitamin.

The ultrasound, which is done to exclude an obstruction or abnormality of the urinary tract and to verify the size of the kidneys, shows, in chronic renal insufficiency, the shrinking and irregularity of the kidney.

Having identified symptoms and diagnoses of chronic renal failure, we now want to understand what the consequences for the body are.

Applications And Need Of Doppler Ultrasound Test

Doppler ultrasound, or simply Eco Doppler, is one of the types of ultrasound that, based on the use of ultrasound, uses the Doppler effect.

In the case of ultrasound, the sound waves leave the ultrasound through the transducer, and bounce off the moving blood, generating different waves depending on the direction and speed of the blood flow. When the blood approaches the ultrasound the frequency will be higher and when it moves away less, this alteration in the ultrasound waves is interpreted by the ultrasound and it assigns a specific colour for each frequency, red, blue and yellow.

Through this method and thanks to this physical principle of sound waves, it is possible to evaluate the flow of vascular structures of any part of the body, being able to determine its existence, its speed and direction of flow.

Why is it important to perform a doppler ultrasound?

The Doppler ultrasound allows to know the amount of blood flow circulating through cavities and veins baby. Its importance is that its results can tell you how much blood is pumped with each beat, thus determining the good state of the baby's heart, in addition to corroborating that the blood is reaching the foetus correctly, and with it the oxygen and the nutrients

But not only important is that sense. Its realization can help detect cardiac malformations in the foetus, problems with the umbilical cord and placenta, so that you and your gynaecologist begin to act quickly, or you can simply rule out these types of problems and make sure that your baby will be born healthy.

When do you have to have a Doppler ultrasound?

This test is usually done to all pregnant women in the third trimester, starting at the 25th week of pregnancy. However, Doppler ultrasound is a non-mandatory quarterly test, which can also be done in the first and second trimesters if the gynecologist considers it necessary.

The cases in which the doctor can recommend you to do this ultrasound are the following:

In case it is suspected that there is a growth delay in the foetus. In this circumstance the doppler ultrasound is very useful to control that the baby receives blood, oxygen and nutrients correctly. In addition, it will also help to know if there are significant blood disorders to anticipate the time of delivery or to predict whether there will be a premature delivery.

If your pregnancy is listed as a risk pregnancy it is recommended that you have an ultrasound of this type in each trimester of pregnancy.

If you suffer from hypertension, what is known as preeclampsia, or you have circulatory problems in the veins. In these cases, if you decide to have this test, you will rule out that your problems are affecting the correct development of the baby.

In the case of heart disease, Doppler ultrasound also works, as you can see if this problem can affect the growth of your baby. This test is performed with the accompaniment of an echocardiogram.

If you plan to go through surgery, Doppler ultrasound is also necessary, since thanks to the study of the flow of the area to be operated you can see if there will be complications a priori.

Tests To Detect Oesophageal Cancer

Usually, oesophageal cancers are discovered when a person has signs or symptoms. If oesophageal cancer is suspected, studies and tests will be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. If cancer is discovered, additional tests will be performed to help determine the extent of cancer.

Medical history and physical exam

If you have symptoms of oesophageal cancer, the doctor will ask questions about your medical history to analyze possible risk factors and learn more about the symptoms.

Your doctor will also do a test to detect possible signs of oesophageal cancer and other medical problems. The doctor will probably pay special attention to your neck and chest areas.

If the test results are abnormal, your doctor will probably order tests to help find the problem. You may also be asked to contact a gastroenterologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive system) for further tests and treatment.

Imaging studies to find oesophageal cancer

The imaging using sound waves, X-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive imaging inside the body substances. Imaging studies can be done for many reasons, such as:

  • Help find a suspicious area that could be cancer
  • Know if cancer has spread, and if so, how far
  • Help determine if the treatment is effective
  • Detect possible signs of cancer returning after treatment

Study with barium intake

In this test, the patient swallows a thick, limestone fluid called barium that covers the walls of the esophagus. When x-rays are taken, barium delineates the esophagus. This test can be done alone or as part of a series of x-rays that include the stomach and part of the intestine, called x-rays of the upper gastrointestinal tract. A barium intake test can show any abnormal area on the normally uniform surface of the inner lining of the esophagus, but cannot be used to determine how far cancer has spread outside the esophagus.

CT scan

A CT (computed tomography, CT) uses x - rays to produce detailed cross-sectionall images of the body. This study can help determine if oesophageal cancer has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes (bean-shaped groups of immune system cells where cancers often spread first) or to distant parts of the body. Before conducting the study, you may be asked to drink approximately 1 to 2 pints (between half and one liter) of a liquid called oral contrast. This helps to delineate the esophagus and intestines. If you are having trouble swallowing, you should inform your doctor before the CT. Before having a CT scan, it is essential to know CT scan cost in south Delhi.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Like computed tomography (CT), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) provides detailed images of soft tissues. However, MRIs use powerful radio waves and magnets instead of X-rays. To better show the details, a contrast material, called gadolinium, may be injected into a vein before the study is done. MRI can be used to see abnormal areas in the brain and spinal cord that may be due to the spread of cancer.

Positron emission tomography

Generally, the positron emission tomography (positron emission tomography, PET) uses a form of radioactive sugar (known as fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG) is injected into the blood. Normal cells use different amounts of sugar, depending on how fast they are growing. Cancer cells, which grow rapidly, are more likely to absorb larger amounts of radioactive sugar than normal cells. These areas of radioactivity can be seen on a PET CT scan using a special camera.

Abdominal CT And Diseases In Which It Is Necessary

In the diagnosis of abdominal ailments for which no explanation is found with the most common medical tests, there is the possibility of performing an abdominal CT scan, which offers images that allow diseases of the digestive system and other internal organs of this part of the body to be detected.

What is an abdominal CT?

CT or computed tomography is a diagnostic test that uses x-rays to obtain images of the inside of the organism in the form of transverse cuts or, also, in the form of three-dimensional images.

Abdominal CT is especially suitable for determining the cause of pain in this area. Many of the structures of the abdomen contain air and cannot be seen well with other types of tests, such as abdominal echoes. It is then that abdominal CT is the best alternative to obtain a view of the abdomen, with the use of contrast, a liquid substance that can be given to the patient to drink or injected.

Characteristics of abdominal CT as a diagnostic test

Among the main features of CT Scan Abdomen, they highlight that it is a rapid and painless diagnostic test. It is nothing invasive, and its accuracy is better than other imaging tests.

CT images of the internal organs of the abdomen, as well as those of the bones, soft tissues, and blood vessels, have greater detail than those generated by radiographs, especially in the observation of soft tissues and blood vessels.

In addition, the technology that uses this type of apparatus allows the transverse images generated during the CT scan can be observed in multiple planes or even create three-dimensional images with them.

What is abdominal CT used for?

Due to its characteristics, it could be said that abdominal CT is a diagnostic test that serves to explain diseases that have not been able to be compared with other tests.

It is often used to determine the origin of an abdominal pain for which no explanation is found, and in emergencies, it can identify injuries and internal hemorrhages quickly enough to help save lives.

It is also effective for the diagnosis and treatment of urological conditions, in the observation of patients who have been operated and in the monitoring of oncological processes.

Diseases in which abdominal CT is useful

Specifically, abdominal CT is used to diagnose the reason of having abdominal or pelvic pain, and for the detection and monitoring of diseases of the internal organs, the small intestine and the colon.

It is used to detect infections, such as appendicitis or accumulations of infected fluid (abscesses), and can help detect stones in the kidneys and bladder.

Abdominal CT scans are also used in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, etc.) and are used in the evaluation and treatment of various tumors, such as liver, kidney, pancreas, cancer of ovaries and bladder, as well as lymphoma.

If you are waiting for this test and do not want to wait any longer, from our medical services website, we can manage your performance, with the appropriate medical advice and a network of more than 5,000 private centers arranged. It is good to know CT scan abdomen cost in Delhi before going to have one.

MRI Of Pregnant Women- Is It Safe?

Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the safest diagnostic methods. One of its main advantages is the absence of radiation exposure to the patient’s body, since MRI diagnostics do not use ionizing (X-ray) radiation. The basis of magnetic resonance imaging is the use of radio pulses in a magnetic field of high tension, and none of the studies have revealed any negative effect on a person of either a magnetic field or radio waves. In addition, most often MRI is performed without the introduction of a contrast agent to the patient.

Thus, we can say that MRI is one of the most suitable research methods when pregnant women need to be diagnosed. In particular, it is certainly preferable to computed tomography (which is virtually eliminated due to the need for contrast). However, with all this it is important to remember that the lack of information about the negative impact of MRI test cost in Noida on the foetus does not mean the complete exclusion of the harm of this type of study for the unborn child. If there is no urgent need, diagnosis is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy.

In the future, pregnant women should undergo MRI exclusively according to the doctor’s indications and under the supervision of an obstetrician-gynaecologist.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the foetus is prescribed according to ultrasound diagnostics when identifying certain pathologies in the development of the unborn child. The high sensitivity of MRI test cost in Noida allows you to clarify the nature of the abnormalities and helps to make an informed decision about the preservation or termination of pregnancy. MRI becomes especially important if it is necessary to study the development of the foetal brain, to diagnose malformations of cortical development associated with impaired organization and formation of the convolutions of the brain, the presence of heterotopy sites, etc.

The doctor decides if it is necessary. If yes, proceed with due precautions

The first step is to assess whether it is really necessary to take the exam or if it can be postponed until after delivery; likewise if there are possible alternative tests, such as ultrasound. If a woman has the real need to undergo radiological assessment, it is good that she does not give up.

In this case, however, it is advisable to take a series of precautions to minimize the risk of damaging the foetus. First of all it is necessary to optimize the quantity of radiation: it is in fact possible to adjust the equipment so as to use the lowest possible dose to obtain a good image for diagnostic purposes anyway. Another important measure to be adopted is to reduce the radiation field as much as possible, so as not to irradiate the foetus.

With these precautions it is therefore possible, for example, to take a chest x-ray without risk to the foetus. The best prevention always passes by this move: to inform the radiologist of the pregnancy even if it is not certain or cannot be excluded, together we will choose the best solution.

When To Have Your Prostate Examined?

The ultrasound is a medical imaging technique based on the use of ultrasound, by which we can "see" inside the body. The ultrasound of the prostate, the gland just below the bladder in men and participating in the production of sperm, can be done in two ways:

For suprapubic: externally, by placing the probe above the pubis

By the endorectal route: internally, by introducing the probe into the rectum. Prostate ultrasound test in Delhi by the endorectal approach is more precise and allows to obtain a better image of the prostate. It also makes it possible to evaluate more precisely the volume of the gland as well as its "texture" and that of the accessory glands (seminal vesicles).

There are three major diseases of the prostate:

Prostatitis is an infection of the prostate. This infection occurs most often in young men;

If the prostate becomes too big, this disease is called adenoma of the prostate (adenoma means an abnormality of a gland) or benign prostatic hypertrophy (hypertrophy means excessive volume increase of an organ). In everyday language, men who have problems urinating because their prostate is too big and compresses the urethra say "I have prostate";

Finally, prostate cancer is common, especially after the age of 50. But it is not necessarily serious if it is detected early enough.

Why have an endorectal ultrasound?

Ultrasonography is a painless, non-invasive examination and is therefore first-line when the doctor suspects an abnormality in the prostate.

This can be the case:

After a rectal examination highlighting an abnormality (mass or hypertrophy) of the prostate

In the case of urinary symptoms (frequent urge and emission of a small amount of urine, pain during urination, urinary tract infection, difficulty urinating, etc.)

In the case of dosing showing an abnormal value of PSA (prostate antigen)

To diagnose benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

To guide the doctor when performing a biopsy and to help him visually detect suspicious areas to better target specimens

In addition to biopsies, ultrasonography is mainly used to assess prostatic volume, which tends to increase with age, which can lead to urinary discomfort (benign prostatic hypertrophy).

Examination

Ultrasound involves exposing the tissues or organs that one wishes to observe to ultrasonic waves. It does not require any preparation or anesthesia. For endorectal ultrasound, an elongate (pencil-shaped) probe is used, covered with a condom, and lubricated. It is inserted shallow into the anus, the patient lying on his side, knees bent.

If a biopsy is performed at the same time, the doctor introduces a needle into the prostate, through the wall of the rectum, guided by ultrasound.

What results can be expected from an endorectal ultrasound of the prostate?

Whether it is to perform biopsies or to evaluate prostate volume, prostate ultrasound test in Delhi helps to diagnose prostate conditions, such as cancer (through biopsies) or benign prostatic hypertrophy. The choice of treatment will depend on the diagnosis but also the age of the patient, different risk factors, etc. In the case of hypertrophy of the troublesome prostate, several drugs may be prescribed, including alpha-blockers and phytotherapy products.

What Is PET/CT And What Are Its Benefits?

PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and CT (Computed Tomography) devices are used together to get metabolic and anatomical data about organs. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging test that assists determine how your tissues and organs function. The PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to demonstrate this activity.

This tracer can be injected in the body, swallowed or inhaled, depending on the organ or tissue to be examined by PET scanning. The tracer is collected in body areas with a high level of chemical activity, often corresponding to disease areas. In a PET scan, these areas appear as bright spots. The PET CT scan is useful in detecting or evaluating a variety of disorders, including certain cancers, heart disease, and brain disorders.

Why PET / CT Scanning?

PET CT scan in Delhi is an effective way to detect chemical activity in body areas. Some cancers can help identify various disorders, including heart disease and brain disorders. Images obtained from PET scanning provide different information than those obtained by other scanning methods like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A PET scan or combined CT-PET scan will allow your doctor to better diagnose your condition.

Cancer

Since cancer cells have a higher metabolic rate than normal cells, they appear as bright spots in PET scans. PET scans may be useful for:

  • Detection of cancer
  • Detecting whether your cancer has spread
  • To check whether cancer treatment works.
  • Determination of cancer recurrence.

PET scans should be interpreted with caution because non-cancerous disorders appear to be cancerous and many types of cancer do not appear in PET scans.

Heart disease

PET scans can show areas in the heart where blood flow is reduced: This information can help you and your doctor in deciding whether you will benefit from a procedure to open a clot-blocked heart artery (angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Brain disorders

PET CT scan in Delhi can be used to assess specific brain disorders, such as:

  • Tumours
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Seizures

What are the advantages and risks associated with PET/CT?

Benefits

Nuclear medicine examinations provide specific information that cannot often be obtained by other imaging methods, including information about both the body's function and anatomical structure.

Nuclear medicine examinations provide the most useful information for diagnosing and, if available, determining the appropriate treatment for many diseases.

Nuclear medicine is less costly than surgical exploration and can provide more accurate information.

Nuclear medicine often offers the potential to detect disease at the earliest stage before symptoms appear or abnormalities are detected by other diagnostic tests.

PET scans can detect the possibility of benign or malignant lesions, eliminating the need for surgical biopsy or identifying the best biopsy site.

PET scans may also provide additional information used in radiation therapy planning.

Child Vaccination And The Optional Vaccinations For Treatment

Vaccination is life treatment process which deliberates the administration (through injections or oral drops) of small dosage of inactivated or weakened virus or bacteria. This is basically done to better prepare the body's immune system to fight future infection(s) and make the person immune or resistant to a particular infection. The vaccination acquaints the body with an organism without it actually experiencing a disease caused by that organism. Vaccination may have to be administered on a regular basis with a specific time gap in between. These forms of vaccines are known as ‘booster’ vaccination to help the immune system overcome a real onset of an infection. Eg: Polio.

It should also be noted that there are also optional vaccinations which are often taken into consideration. Optional vaccines, as the name suggests lets you choose to have it or not without any risk or disadvantage. It goes without saying that immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is definitely beneficial for the individual. The merits of ‘optional’ vaccines for individual use must be considered on the basis of the degree of prevalence of the infection and disease; age prevalence of mortality, morbidity and the condition which is the cause of the previous disease. Additionally, it is also seen whether the risk of severe disease in susceptible adults after weaning of vaccine-induced immunity; and the effects of childhood vaccination in modifying future epidemiology. Socioeconomic factors are of important consideration. Some of the optional vaccinations given priority in our country are:

Haemophilus type b conjugate (Hib)- Hib is a bacteria responsible for severe pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases almost exclusively in children aged less than 5 years. The stat shows that in the year 2000, Hib was estimated to have caused two to three million cases of serious disease, notably pneumonia and meningitis, and 386,000 deaths in young children.

Rotavirus- This particular virus is essentially the prime cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. As a matter of fact, it claims 1 in 6 deaths in children under age of 5 in India. This vaccine was introduced in the UIP in a few states in 2016.

Influenza virus- To counter the influenza virus, the flu vaccine is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease. This virus is highly contagious and causes grave morbidity and mortality especially in the immune-compromised states.

Typhoid- Typhoid is an infection oriented fever which results due to the systemic infection mainly by S. typhi found only in man. The estimates as recent as 2014 suggest that approximately 21 million cases and 222,000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide.

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