Depending on the medical indication, the specificities of the area to be studied, or the profile of the patient, the doctor has a wide choice of medical imaging techniques.
Standard radiography uses X-rays that pass through the human body, being more or less absorbed by the tissues according to their density. It allows to obtain two-dimensional images of "full" structures. This technique is, therefore, well suited to the observation of bones and joints. Orthopedics, rheumatology, or orthodontics, use radiography to study trauma (fractures, etc.), skeletal deformities, or the implantation of teeth.
It is also possible to visualize certain organs or hollow parts, usually invisible to X-rays, by "filling" them with an opaque contrast product: this is the contrast radiography.
CT or computed tomography
The scanner, which also uses X-rays, explores the body in volume and thus makes it possible to establish 3D images of organs or tissues scanned: bone, muscles, vessels, or brain. The images obtained are "sectional" images.
The scanner makes it possible to visualize a change of volume or a structural anomaly (tumor, embolism, aneurysm, etc.). It will reveal a narrowing of the coronary arteries in case of chest pain or myocardial infarction. It can also be used in surgery to inform doctors about areas where the intervention is planned, as well as oncology, to control the response to chemotherapy or guide biopsies.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The MRI allows to visualize the anatomical structure of the body volume. Anatomic MRI is distinguished from functional MRI.
Anatomical MRI is based on the magnetization of hydrogen atoms present wherever there is water and fat. It is, therefore, particularly adapted to the observation of "soft tissues," such as the brain, the spinal cord, the muscles, the tendons, or the viscera (liver, spleen, and kidney).
Functional MRI is based on the measurement of the deoxy-hemoglobin of red blood cells (the hemoglobin devoid of oxygen leaving the organs). It thus makes it possible to follow the influx of oxygenated blood in the organs, and thus it is very used in the cerebrovascular accidents, but also, in neurology, to make the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosisby visiting MRI test labs in Delhi.
An ultrasound probe emits ultrasound, sound waves imperceptible to the ear, in the direction of a solid object. They bounce off the object and then return to the starting point. The system allows to explore the heart, the viscera (liver, spleen, pancreas, bladder, bladder, kidneys), and the genital tract (ovaries, uterus, prostate). On the other hand, the digestive tract, the lungs, and the bones are not acceptable.
Doppler ultrasound allows the vascular system to be explored with a thinner probe that can be introduced into the vessel lumen. It is indicated for exploratory examinations in diseases of the veins and arteries. It is important to first know Doppler ultrasound cost.
Finally, ultrasounds of pregnancy, which do not present a danger for the foetus, allow its morphology and its environment: amniotic fluid, placenta, cord.