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Blog posts of '2018' 'March'

What Is Endoscopic Ultrasound - A Complete Guide

Doctors have long and successfully learned to recognize and treat conditions of the digestive system, but today more and more advanced technologies are being used. One of the most effective methods for diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is endoscopic ultrasound.

What is endoscopic ultrasound

 

What is endoscopic ultrasound?

Now for the study of the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs, one of the traditional methods of diagnosis is most often used: transabdominal ultrasound, which is carried out through the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic ultrasound is a hybrid technology - the connection between ultrasound and endoscopy. If in routine ultrasound, recognition is performed through the skin, endoscopy is accomplished by inserting into the esophagus a particular ultrasound endoscope directed to the organ to be examined.

 

In what cases is endosurgery used

Ultrasound-endoscopes are of two types: radial and linear (convective). Redial allows you to obtain a detailed image of the walls of hollow organs and adjacent structures and using a direct echoendoscope you can perform a fine needle aspiration (sucking) biopsy. The primary indication for the use of endoscopic ultrasound is the staging of tumorous diseases of the organs of the upper digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum). During the study, the depth of tumor invasion into the organ wall is determined, the regional lymph nodes and distant metastases are assessed.

 

The use of echo endoscopes also makes it possible to perform diagnostics of submucosal formations of the upper digestive tract, to determine the benign or malignant structure, to reveal the layer from which it originates. All this is fundamentally important for determining the further tactics of treatment. Even small pancreatic cysts can be successfully drained under the control of endoscopy, which allows choosing the most successful point for puncture, where there are no significant vessels, and there is the most intimate contact of the wall of the cyst with the wall of the organ.

Also, endoscopy helps diagnose diseases of the pancreatobiliary zone, detect tumor lesions of the pancreas, sizeable duodenal papilla, and bile ducts. With the help of an echoendoscope, it is possible not only to determine the nature of cystic and other pancreatic neoplasias but also to perform a fine needle aspiration biopsy for morphological examination and confirmation of the diagnosis.

 

Preparation for endoscopic ultrasound

As with the preparation for the regular endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to observe the fasting regime: you cannot eat or drink for 12 hours. But unlike ordinary gastroscopy, the vast majority of endoscopy is performed under general anesthesia. Firstly, the study is quite long: depending on the indications it takes from 20 minutes to 1 hour.

Secondly, the echoendoscope is more rigid and of larger diameter, which causes unpleasant sensations to the patient. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasound test cost in Noida and other cities is performed in outpatient settings, and fine needle aspiration biopsy and therapeutic interventions are performed in a hospital. The patient regains consciousness right after the end of the procedure, and full recovery is needed from half an hour to an hour.

Helpfulness of pregnancy ultrasound to check fetus' health

In the 21st century, thanks to the development of Pregnancy Ultrasound diagnostics, parents do not need to spend nine long months to wonder what a small miracle looks like that develops in the womb. Now future moms and dads can get to know their baby already at the earliest stages of pregnancy. However, first of all, ultrasound is not necessary to satisfy the curiosity of parents. This procedure gives answers to much more critical questions.

 Pregnancy Ultrasound

The natural desire not only of the future mother but also of the doctor is the desire for early detection of a possible pathology in the coming baby. And the most crucial component of the complex of diagnostic measures for pregnant women is ultrasound. It is this procedure that allows to eliminate congenital diseases of the fetus already in the early stages and, thereby, to save the woman from fear of having a child with developmental abnormalities.

At the same time, if the fetus has any severe defects, the woman has the opportunity to terminate the pregnancy: at the very beginning, it is much less traumatic to take this decision than at the later stages. Of course, it is reasonable to carry out early diagnostics, which is sometimes so fateful, only specialists with vast experience in the field of prenatal ultrasound diagnostics and having the most modern technology can do it.

 

- And what kind of markers are they?

- These are signs, the appearance of which allows you to suspect the presence of any pathology in the fetus. One of the most important indicators, which the expert evaluates during an ultrasound in the first trimester, is the thickness of the collar space. It is an accumulation of fluid between the fetal skin and the soft tissues surrounding the cervical spine.

After the 14th week, the collar space disappears, so it is so important to adhere to the periods indicated for the survey. With the thickness of the "collar" more than 2.5 mm high risk of developing chromosomal pathology, diaphragmatic hernia, and malfunctions in the formation of the cardiovascular system.

Another "tip," which doctors pay attention to during Ist trimester ultrasound, is the formation of the nasal bone. In a typically developing fetus, it should be determined by the 11th week. In chromosomal diseases, this process slows down, so the absence of nasal bone during these periods may be an indirect sign of impairment.

 

- If I trimester ultrasound showed suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities - what should I do?

- The main thing is not to panic ahead of time. Further, the more detailed examination will allow finding out all the nuances. The Pregnancy Ultrasound data must be evaluated in conjunction with a biochemical study. And if the blood test also revealed a high risk of birth of an inferior child, the pregnant woman is sent to a geneticist who raises the question of karyotyping the fetus.

This invasive technique gives the most reliable result, but it must be done with caution - only in a good clinic, with a doctor with extensive experience in implementing similar procedures.

- Some pregnant women refuse ultrasound, fearing to get bad results

- Of course, future mothers worry a lot about their baby, do not sleep at night in anticipation of doctors' verdict. However, at the same time, if you do not undergo the necessary examinations, the same fear, uncertainty, and doubt will torment the woman during all nine months, and this is much worse. So it is better at the earliest stages of pregnancy to try to clarify the situation and make sure that everything goes well.

Use Of Computed Tomography For The Detection Of Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer, also known as adenocarcinoma or renal cell carcinoma, hyper-nephroma or renal cancer, is frequent in men as well as in women, and as specified in the latest report of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM). ), this type of tumor is among the ten most prevalent in India.

 Use Of Computed Tomography For The Detection Of Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer is twice as common in men as in women, and CT is usually the best method for its detection. For its effective detection, the Computed Tomography (CT) is the best method (as well as it is to detect tumors of the lung, liver or pancreas, among others). Since the images or results provided by best CT scan centers in Delhi allows the doctor to confirm the presence of a tumor, measure its size, identify its exact location and at the same time determine the extent it has on other nearby tissues.

 

Also, the TAC can be used not only to detect cancer in the kidneys, but to detect if they suffer the following:

  1.      Tumors or other injuries.
  2.      Obstructions such as kidney stones.
  3.      Abscesses (infection and inflammation of tissue of the organism characterized by swelling and pus accumulation).
  4.      Polycystic kidney disease.
  5.      Congenital disabilities.

 

How to prevent kidney cancer?

There are some guidelines you can understand to prevent kidney cancer, such as:

  •        Do not smoke, since tobacco represents a high percentage of cases of kidney cancer.
  •        Eating a balanced diet: obesity and high blood pressure are also risk factors for kidney cancer.
  •        Avoid exposure in the workplace to harmful substances such as cadmium and organic solvents.
  •        It is advisable to perform an abdominal ultrasound every four or five years after age 40 in those cases with a family history of this type of cancer.

 

What are the risks in a CT scan of the kidneys?

If you see yourself identified with some of the following situations, it is essential that you notify the professional to avoid risks and proceed to the diagnosis through other techniques:

  1.      If you regularly take certain medications for diabetes, you may be at risk of developing metabolic acidosis (one of the acid-base balance             disorders)
  2.      If you are allergic to medicines, contrast dyes, local anesthesia, iodine or latex, let them know before performing a CT scan.
  3.      In pregnant patients, radiation from CT can cause risks and adverse effects on the fetus.

 

Why might I need a CT scan of the kidneys?

A CT scan of the kidneys can be done to check the kidneys for:

  •        Tumors or other injuries
  •        Obstructions such as kidney stones
  •        Abscesses
  •        Polycystic kidney disease
  •        Congenital disabilities

A CT scan is also useful when another type of tests, such as an x-ray or a physical exam, does not yield conclusive results. CT scans of the kidneys can be used to evaluate the back of the abdomen. They can also be used to guide needle placement in kidney biopsies.

After a kidney is removed, a CT scan can be performed to locate abnormal masses in the space where the kidney was found.

 

What is Intravascular Ultrasound - A Complete Guide

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is performed by a transducer or probe that produce sound waves and images of the coronary arteries. IVUS can show the entire wall of the artery and provide necessary information about plaque buildup, which can further determine if you are at risk for a heart attack. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no harmful effects, and allows a clear view of soft tissues that cannot be seen well on X-ray images.

What is Intravascular Ultrasound


4d ultrasound in Delhi requires little or no special preparation. However, because it is usually used along with another process, you should ask your doctor about how to get prepared, about whether you will be admitted for observation and ultrasound cost in Delhi. If you are continuing to be sedated, you may be instructed not to eat or drink anything during the eight hours before the procedure. Leave the jewelry at home and wear loose and comfortable clothing. You could be asked to put on a robe.


The IVUS catheter is a thin, flexible tube that has a tiny ultrasonic transducer at one end. The opposite end of the catheter is attached to a computer that converts the sound waves of the transducer into real-time images on a monitor.

How it is performed?


• The IVUS is performed in a catheterization room (cath lab), usually together with angiography or angioplasty.
• This procedure is often done in outpatients. However, some patients may need hospitalization after the process. Please consult your doctor about whether you will be admitted or not.
• It will be located on an examination table.
• During the procedure, it could be connected to monitors that control the heartbeat, blood pressure, and pulse.
• A nurse or technologist places an intravenous (IV) line in a vein in the hand or arm to administer the sedative medication intravenously. Moderate sedation could be used. As an alternative, you may be given general anesthesia.
• The area of the body where the catheter will be placed will be sterilized and covered with a surgical drape.
• The doctor will leave the area unresponsive with a local anesthetic.
• A small incision is made in the skin on the site.
First, a sheath is inserted into an artery (usually in the groin) or a vein. Using X-rays or ultrasound guidance, insert the catheter into the sheath and carefully push it through the vessel to the final location. Once in place, the transducer at the top of the catheter uses sound waves to produce images of the blood vessels. Doctors can move the catheter to obtain pictures of the inside of the vessels in different locations.

What are the benefits and risks?


IVUS has many benefits for taking images of the coronary arteries:


• shows the presence and amount of plaque in the coronary arteries
• measures the degree of narrowing of the vessel due to the plate
• provides information on what the plate is made of
• detects the recurrence of stenosis
• allows more accurate stent placement and reduces the incidence of stent thrombosis
• does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation


Any procedure that consists of the placement of a catheter in a blood vessel carries certain risks. They include damage to the blood vessel, bruising or bleeding at the site where the needle is placed, and infection. However, precautions are taken to mitigate these risks.

What is the vitamin D lab test?

The vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth nutrient. Two types of vitamin D are necessary for nutrition: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. The primary source of vitamin D2 is fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals, milk, and other dairy products. The body produces vitamin D3 when we are exposed to sunlight. It is also observed in some foods, such as eggs and fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel.

In the bloodstream, vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are transformed into a form of vitamin D called 25-hydroxyvitamin D, also known as 25-OH vitamin D. The vitamin D test measures the levels of 25-OH vitamin D in the blood. Abnormal levels of vitamin D may indicate bone diseases, nutrition problems, organ damage or other diseases.

 What is the vitamin D lab test?

For what do you use it?

The Vitamin Test is done to detect or monitor bone diseases. Sometimes, it is also used to find out the levels of vitamin D in people with chronic conditions such as asthma, psoriasis or certain autoimmune diseases.

 

Why do I need a vitamin D test?

Your doctor or health professional may ask for a vitamin D test if you have symptoms of vitamin D deficiency (you do not have enough vitamin D), for example:

  • Weak bones
  • Soft bones
  • Malformation of bones (in children)
  • Fractures

The Vitamin test may be required if you are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Some of the risk factors are:

  • Osteoporosis or other bone diseases
  • Previous gastric bypass surgery
  • Age; Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in older people
  • Obesity
  • Lack of exposure to sunlight
  • Having darker skin
  • Difficulty in the absorption of fats in the diet
  • Also, breastfed babies may be at increased risk if they do not take vitamin D supplements.

What happens during a vitamin D test?

The vitamin D test is a blood test. During the test, the Vitamin Test Labs takes a blood sample from a vein in one arm with a small needle. After inserting the needle, remove a small amount of blood that is placed in a test tube or vial. You may feel mild discomfort when the needle is inserted or removed, but the procedure usually takes less than five minutes.

 

Will I have to do something to prepare for the test?

The vitamin D test does not require any special preparation.

 

Does this test have any risk?

You may feel mild pain or a bruise where the needle is inserted, but most symptoms disappear quickly.

 

What do the results mean?

If your results show a vitamin D deficiency that could mean that you:

  • Are not exposed enough to sunlight
  • Do not get enough vitamin d in your diet
  • Have difficulty absorbing vitamin D from food

A low result could also mean that the body has trouble using the vitamin correctly and that it may have kidney or liver disease.

If your results show an excess of vitamin D, chances are you are taking too many pills or vitamin D supplements. Excess vitamin D can cause damage to organs and blood vessels.