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What Is Radiology?

Radiology is a medical specialty that includes medical imaging and nuclear medicine (use of radioactive materials to visualize different organs and body structures).

The term radiology by extension designates all diagnostic and therapeutic techniques which use X-rays, or more generally radiation.

what-is-radiology

In addition to radiography, imaging techniques include:

  • The ultrasound
  • The scanner or computed tomography (also uses x-ray)
  • The pet scan
  • The nuclear magnetic resonance
  • The scintigraphy, etc.

Discovered at the end of the 19th century, X-rays have the property of passing through tissues (in a variable manner depending on their density) and of printing an image on a photographic plate. Today, the result is generally obtained in the form of a digital image, but the principle remains the same: an X-ray beam is directed towards the region to be examined. Depending on the tissue crossed, the intensity of the beam is modulated and allows an image of the interior of the body to be obtained. Thus, the rays are very absorbed by the bones; they are moderately affected by soft tissue and weakly by fat.

Why use radiology?

Radiology is essential for the diagnosis of many diseases. It also makes it possible to follow their evolution and to intervene to treat various pathologies (interventional radiology).

The use of radiation can also make it possible to destroy cancer cells (radiotherapy).

In the medical field, imagery is used daily, for countless indications.

According to the French Society of Radiology, radiology is used more and more to guide interventions. Interventional radiology or imaging guidance can have:

  • Diagnostic purposes: punctures, biopsies
  • Therapeutic purposes.

The radiography vector uses an X-ray emitting source which is positioned in front of the body area to be radiographed. A detector is placed on the other side, to capture the rays after they have passed through the tissue.

The exam is painless and quick.

In some cases, contrast media (or contrast media) are used, for example, iodine or barium sulfate, which are opaque to X-rays. By injecting them into a vein, for example, they will "color" certain parts of the body and allow them to stand out on the pictures.

What results can we expect from radiology?

As we have seen, radiology techniques are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of many conditions.

They allow in particular to identify cancers, fractures, deformities, lesions of all kinds (arthritis, vascular anomalies, etc.).

However, imaging tests are expensive and are still prescribed for specific indications.

In addition, since X-rays can be harmful to tissues, especially at high doses or during repeated exposures, measures are taken to minimize patient exposure. It is also important to report to the doctor any pregnancy or doubt of pregnancy. The SFR recalls, however, that a simple radiographic photograph "corresponds on average to the average natural exposure (of the sun) suffered during a 4-hour trip by plane.”

Where possible, non-irradiating techniques (ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging) are recommended. Before undergoing an ultrasound, it is also suggested to know the ultrasound test price in Delhi first.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) And Medical Considerations

If you or your child need an MRI, that is, an MRI, you should know that the procedure is safe.

Many people will never need to have an MRI scan, and if you have a cochlear implant, there may be other diagnostic tools available to use. In fact, 85% of radiology professionals agree that they have an alternative diagnostic tool for those who cannot undergo magnetic resonance due to having a device or a magnet implant.

child-mri

Magnet removal for better head and neck MRI studies

If you must undergo an MRI scan of the head, the presence of the cochlear implant magnet will distort the MRI scan image of any power. Regardless of what brand of implant you have, for the MRI scans of the brain in general you need to remove the magnet.

You can remove and replace the implant magnet with a medical procedure if necessary. In the unlikely event that you or your child need repeated MRIs, there is an option without a magnet.

Neuroimaging: Role of MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging can produce not only morphological images but also functional ones and its range of indications is extended day by day, invading the terrain of other modalities (CT, angiography, PET, ultrasound, etc.). There are currently two techniques in MRI that are leading the research, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Determining the merits of a given medical imaging test poses a complex and multidimensional problem. In fact, the merits of an examination may depend on the patient's age, sex, size and physical limits. It may also depend on the disorder and symptoms under review

Making good decisions about medical imaging is further complicated by the fact that imaging techniques are evolving rapidly and that some clinical cases and exams are difficult. Furthermore, understanding the rationale for prescribing practices for diagnostic imaging exams is further complicated by an increasing trend in the number of specialists (e.g. cardiologists, obstetricians, rheumatologists, neurologists and oncologists) who order diagnostic imaging tests and interpret images and, in some cases, run imaging laboratories.

The use of advanced diagnostic imaging is likely to continue to increase over the next decade due to the above factors. Other factors may also contribute to the continued growth in the use of advanced diagnostic imaging. For example, the increased use of CT may be due in part to the interest it has had as a screening tool, particularly for lung cancer in smokers and former smokers, heart disease and colon cancer.

Similarly, it is likely that PET/CT will play an increasingly important role, as new radioactive indicators will broaden the range of clinical disorders that it can diagnose. It remains to be seen whether this possible increase in use will result in an increase in the frequency of inappropriate use.

What To Do If Your Head Constantly Hurts?

We all face a headache, though not so often. But what if the head hurts constantly, and not three times a month? The reason can be both in lifestyle and in poor health.

How lifestyle affects headache?

If you suffer from regular headaches, pay attention to your habits. Discomfort can occur due to fatigue, hunger, lack of sleep, overwork or stress. To get rid of the pain, try changing your schedule at least for a couple of weeks:

head-constantly-hurts

Go to bed early - a person needs at least 8 hours of sleep to rest. But do not sleep for more than 10 hours. In this case, the level of oxygen and sugar in the blood will decrease and cause a headache.

If you are sitting at books, a computer for a long time or your work is connected with looking at small details - once in half an hour get distracted. Stand, doubt, and do not strain your eyes for at least a couple of minutes.

Stop drinking alcohol. It affects blood pressure and affects the state of the vessels of the head.

Try to avoid stressful situations and negative emotions. If the headache is not caused by disease, then these simple tips will help you avoid it.

To relieve pain, you can take an analgesic (which medicine is right for you, the doctor will help you choose), have a bite to eat, lie down to sleep for half an hour, ventilate the room and do a head massage.

When your head hurts constantly, your doctor may refer you to an MRI or CT scan of your head

If the causes of the headache are not clear, the neurologist will refer you to an MRI scan centre in Noida- they will quickly determine the cause of the discomfort. And if everything is in order with the brain itself, a competent neurologist will be able to find the source of pain and send the desired specialty to the doctor.

Heart and spine as a cause of pain

Often the head hurts due to problems with the heart and blood vessels. Usually, older people are affected, but some diseases are common among young people:

High and low blood pressure. The head hurts when the weather changes, with a sharp rise, dizziness may begin and darken in the eyes. This is due to vascular tension and oxygen deprivation of the brain.

Vascular disease. With them, the pain lasts for several hours in the eye area, blood can flow from the nose.

Sclerosis and pinched vessels are the inevitable companions of atherosclerosis and scoliosis. Due to the reduced vascular lumen, less oxygen enters the brain, the head begins to hurt either over the entire area or in the back of the head and temples.

Stroke - thrombosis or rupture of cerebral vessels. There is a severe dull pain, a person may lose mobility on one side of the face or body, cease to distinguish between familiar objects. At the first symptoms of a stroke, you need to urgently call an ambulance - in a few hours the brain will die.

To detect pressure problems you just need to monitor your condition or visit an ultrasound clinic. It is no coincidence that at every appointment with the therapist you are necessarily measured with pressure. Do not be alarmed if it has changed one day: it is completely normal. But vascular diseases can be seen only on MRI of the brain or magnetic resonance imaging. You will be referred to these examinations in order to accurately establish the diagnosis if it did not work out right away.

The Repercussions Of Eating Fast

Eating on a daily basis has a fundamental reason of giving the body the right amount of nutrition. The meals too need to be taken on time for getting maximum dietary benefits. However, there is something which is time and again overlooked by many of us; this has something to do with the tempo or the speed at which we are eating. That is right! Some people eat their food at slow and relaxed while many people eat in haste and end up gulping the food instead of chewing them properly. Here is what eating too fast can do to you:

repercussions-of-eating-fast

  1. Overeating- In your quest to eat fast so you can head out somewhere on time, you end up eating more than what is required for your body. The meal portions tend to get bigger than usual as your mind fails to record how much of the food is necessary and how much is not. This delays the brain's process to realize that the body is full.
  2. Obesity- It is almost in correlation with the point discussed above. Overeating is slowly but surely leads to obesity, and the reason could not account for something genetic. Rather, it'd be a result of unruly eating instincts. Hence, you need to slow down a little to see the difference in your eating pattern and even of the weight status in the longer period of time.
  3. Poor digestion- Eating food is totally dependent on the process of chewing. The tendency of eating food too fast hinders the process and this result in poor digestive pattern which causes indigestion.
  4. Insulin- This is another boomerang effect which is caused due to eating too fast. When you eat too quickly, it can lead to a sudden spike in blood sugar, which can lead to insulin resistance. Such resistance can shoot up the blood sugar levels, commonly called diabetes.

All said and done, the tendency to eat too fast can be countered without any hard and fast rule. What one simply has to do is avoid skipping meals. The reason being an empty stomach with the urge to eat consumes a lot of food due to overeating. One must also avoid eating food whilst watching TV or browsing phone as you may lose track on how much you ate.

Diagnostic Imaging Of The Chest

Imaging includes X-ray, MRI, scintigraphy and ultrasound examinations.

There are no absolute contraindications for carrying out diagnostic procedures for non-invasive images except for MRI. The presence of metal objects inside the patient's eyes or brain precludes MRI.

The presence of a permanent pacemaker or internal defibrillator is a relative contraindication. In addition, gadolinium, when used as a contrast agent for MRI, increases the risk of systemic nephrogenic fibrosis in patients with chronic 4th or 5th stage kidney disease.

imaging-of-the-chest

X-Ray techniques

X-ray investigations used for chest imaging include chest X-ray, fluoroscopy, high resolution, and multilayer CT and angio-CT.

Chest X-ray

Chest x-ray examination and fluoroscopy are used to obtain images of the lungs and nearby anatomical structures. The chest radiograph provides images relating to internal and external structures in the chest and is very useful to identify any cardiac abnormalities, parenchymal lung, pleura, chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinal and lung ILI. Usually, it is the survey that is first done to study the lungs.

Computed tomography

CT displays the intrathoracic structures and abnormalities more clearly than a standard chest x-ray can. Conventional (planar) CT provides multiple images of cross-sections of the chest, 10 mm thick. Its main advantage is the wide availability. The disadvantages are represented by the movement artifacts and by the limited resolution in the volume of fabric included in a 10 mm slice.

The spiral CT provides multiplanar images of the entire thorax acquired during apnea of 8-10 seconds while the patient is being moved in a continuous manner in the gantry of the CT. Spiral CT is considered at least equivalent to conventional CT for most applications. Before having a CT scan, it is recommended to know the CT scan cost in south Delhi. Its main advantages are speed, less exposure to radiation and the possibility of reconstructing the images on the 3 floors. The software can also generate images of the bronchial mucosa (virtual bronchoscopy).

Magnetic resonance

MRI has a relatively limited role in lung imaging but is preferred over CT in specific circumstances (e.g., for the evaluation of neoplasms of the upper sulcus, possible cysts and indissociable lesions from the chest wall). In patients with suspicion of pulmonary embolism in whom IV contrast agents cannot be used, MRI can sometimes identify coarse proximal emboli, but normally its use is very limited in this pathology.

The advantages of MRI are the absence of radiation exposure for patients, the excellent visualization of vascular structures, the lack of bone artifacts and the excellent contrast of soft tissues.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound is often used to facilitate certain procedures such as thoracentesis and the insertion of central venous catheters. Ultrasound is also very useful for assessing the presence and extent of pleural effusions and is now commonly used to guide thoracentesis to the patient's bed. Ultrasound performed on the patient's bed is becoming common to diagnose pneumothorax.

The biopsy endobronchial ultrasound-guided is increasingly being used in combination with fiber optic bronchoscopy to better locate masses and enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnostic yield of endo-bronchial ultrasound compared to conventional unguided techniques is higher as regards the transbronchial aspiration of the lymph nodes.

CT, MRI, Ultrasound, And X-Ray: To Be Afraid Or Not?

Manifestations of many diseases take us by surprise, change our plans, disturb. On the one hand, the symptoms themselves can scare, and on the other, the need for a diagnosis. CT, MRI, ultrasound, and X-ray - is it harmful or not? And why several - is it possible to do one thing? What do you need to know about the most common methods of medical imaging today? How do they differ from each other? Which diagnostic method is right for you?

ultrasound-and-xray

In the arsenal of modern doctors, there are many diagnostic methods. At the same time, more and more people are talking about overdiagnosis. How does the patient understand that the study is really necessary? In what cases are CT, MRI, ultrasound, and x-rays prescribed?

On overdiagnosis in relation to the patient, we can talk in the case of self-designation. When patients who have some kind of complaints, they prescribe themselves some kind of examination without consulting a doctor- for example, after reading some article on the Internet.

The moment determining the choice of a diagnostic method is the estimated area of ​​damage. For example, if pathology from the pulmonary system is suspected, then the primary method will be radiological. The use of MRI, in this case, is impractical.

Therefore, before undergoing a study, it is better to first see a doctor, and then undergo one or another additional examination by MRI scan centre in New Delhi- both laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostics (ultrasound, CT, etc.). The only way is it possible, on the one hand, to be immediately examined purposefully, and on the other, to avoid unreasonable (often very tangible) material and time costs.

- Each of these research methods has a radiation load on the body?

No, only methods based on x-ray radiation (in particular fluorography, fluoroscopy, and radiography, CT). Ultrasound and MRI do not carry any radiation load, as they are based on other physical phenomena that have nothing to do with radiation.

- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, ultrasound and x-ray - which of these research methods is the safest, and which is the most informative?

The safest of them is an ultrasound scan, and also, in the absence of contraindications, an MRI. In terms of information, CT and MRI will be the leaders, but each in its “nomination”. For example, to detail the pathology of the lungs, CT is most informative, while when examining the brain- MRI.

- Is it true that to clarify the diagnosis, only one diagnostic method is not enough?

If we talk not only about the methods discussed above but about diagnostics in principle, then most often - yes. Diagnosis is a multi-component process. For example, an ultrasound revealed some kind of formation. To clarify its nature, MRI may be needed. Suppose tomography showed the presence of a tumor. But what kind of tumor is it? To answer this question, a biopsy may be necessary, sometimes even a diagnostic operation.

- If the patient has an alternative between CT and MRI - what to choose?

Again, it depends on what area of ​​the body, organ (s) are planned to be examined. If, for example, we are talking about the head or spine, then an MRI will be preferable. Often you can hear the question of what is the difference between MRI and CT scan cost in Delhi NCR, and which one is better. The basis of CT is the principle of x-ray radiation, and MRI - of the magnetic field. Both methods solve their own range of diagnostic tasks, and, if necessary, complement each other.

5 Possible Reasons Women Do Not Get Period Despite Cramps

Menstrual period is normal amongst the women in their teens to the 50's. The pain is throbbing in nature and can cause lots of discomfort which can hinder the daily activities. The reason for the cramps being is the Prostaglandin (a lipid hormone) which leads to the contraction of the uterus muscles to discharge the unfertilized egg and the uterus lining. However, it must be noted that the cramps do not lead to the periods. There can be a host of different reasons for which women can experience cramps and pelvic pain. The top 5 reasons are:

period-despite-cramps

  1. Endometriosis- In this medical condition, the tissues similar to the lining of the uterus start growing outside the womb. These tissues respond to the period hormones in the same way as the tissue in the uterus does. They even break down and bleed just like the uterus tissue. What adds to the complexity is the fact that these tissues cannot get discarded from the body through the vagina and so form lesions, causing pain and swelling. The one suffering from endometriosis might experience period-like cramps any time of the month.
  2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or PID is known to be a bacterial infection in female reproductive organs. The reason for infection is by and large the sexually transmitted bacteria that usually spread from the vagina to the uterus. Such bacterial infection can also hinder the prospects if you are trying to conceive. The symptoms of PID are not detected in the early stages. Therefore check for the development of conditions when you experience pain in both the sides of your lower belly, lower back, you bleed during sex and your discharge smells. Consult your doctors immediately without any further delay.
  3. Inflammatory bowel diseases- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) is the chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. Though the exact cause is still unknown, it is believed that the condition is somehow linked with your diet and stress level. In IBS you will feel intense pain in the right lower or middle part of your belly. The pain can be mild to severe.
  4. Ruptured Ovarian cysts- Ruptured Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets in an ovary that has ruptured. In most of the cases, these cysts are harmless and non-cancerous. Mostly these cysts go away on their own, but they may cause a problem at times and need proper treatment. If you have a ruptured cyst you might have sudden, sharp cramps on any one side of your belly or lower belly. You may also have some spotting and experience lower back pain.
  5. Lactose intolerance- Lactose intolerance is a common medical condition which cuts down the stomach's ability to digest lactose, which is the main carbohydrate in dairy products. As such, the women with lactose intolerance are most likely to experience stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and bloating. These symptoms generally appear 30 minutes to 2 hours after consuming dairy items.
Some Unconventional Reasons For Headache You Are Not Aware Of

Headache has become a part and parcel of life; such is the frequency of occurrence that people are left in disarray to perform even the basic of tasks. The pain on the forehead might also aggravate to the point that it would need an expert opinion. But one must also understand a rather uncanny pattern. That headache has some unconventional reasons to transpire. This is largely because of the few lifestyle errs that we have been doing inadvertently. Let us take a look at the possible reasons:

aware-of-headache

  1. Too much caffeine- Raved and hailed for being the best stress buster that also counteracts on headache, we never mind sipping coffee or tea regardless of the day. But much to your shock, the excessive intake of coffee actually adds to your hammering headache which takes the focus off your important assignments. The reason being that the daily cup of coffee makes your blood vessels become constricted and the moment you let go of your daily dose of coffee, your head starts to hurt.
  2. Dehydration- The water content of your body and the need for an optimum amount for the same cannot be stressed enough. With the right amount of water intake, the nerves and vessels are not stressed thereby putting the risk of exerting the body which can also lead to headache.
  3. Hormonal issues/imbalances- Hormones are the stimulators of the body and their secretion is very important. Sometimes a drop in the level of your hormones can also cause a headache. More so when your estrogen level is not up to the mark then you will have to suffer from this problem. Even pregnancy affects the estrogen level. Therefore, it is about time you consult a specialist for hormonal changes.
  4. Incorrect posture- While incorrect posture has long been associated with orthopedic conditions, they can also be adding to your headache woes. Hence, one must try to keep the posture of the body correct especially if you happen to have lifestyle/job commitments which is sedentary in nature. Once in a while, you must also get up and take short breaks for walk.
  5. Too much use of gadgets- It goes without saying that we all are addicted or at least too engrossed in our tech devices for some reason or the other. It adds to a myriad of problems. Be it the incorrect posture or the constant oozing out of the blue light. The blue light causes strain to the eyes and this can immediately trigger headache.
All About Ultrasound To Know In 2020

Everyone knows how important it is to accurately determine the diagnosis before starting treatment, and not to act blindly. Only such an approach can guarantee the effectiveness of treatment. Currently, many methods are used in medicine. Ultrasound diagnostics is one of them, which allows simple and painless to carry out a qualitative and quantitative assessment of data, to study the morphological and functional characteristics of the structure of organs and systems.

ultrasound-in-2020

The modern ultrasound machine and the high professionalism of the staff allow for high-quality diagnosis. In terms of the combination of positive characteristics with ultrasound, it is difficult to compare any other method, since, probably, no one has such a combination of advantages:

Ultrasound test provides reliable information about the position, shape, and size of the internal organs and small pelvis, as well as the fetus.

  • The study is convenient and does not require complicated preparation
  • Ultrasound is publicly available
  • Ultrasound is harmless and safe for the doctor, patient at any age, including those not yet born (located in the womb)
  • The study is painless and not associated with discomfort
  • Low time spent on research. Ultrasound is performed in real-time. This circumstance gives several advantages at once:
  • No time is needed for processing the material, developing and printing any pictures, etc., the result of the study becomes apparent at the end of the study
  • The researcher sees his “picture” in real-time and has the ability to control the image, achieving the best. The ultra-sonographer will not tell the patient: “Come on Wednesday for the result; if it doesn’t work out, let’s repeat

Ultrasound has virtually no contraindications and restrictions on use.

Ultrasound method features:

  • Identification of the disease in the early stages, when there are no complaints, which is extremely important in relation to cancer
  • Clarification of the diagnosis for a more correct appointment
  • The ability to evaluate treatment results.

Is ultrasound harmful to health?

Each patient, coming to the ultrasound diagnostic room, asks himself the question whether this study will harm him. To answer the first part of the question, it is necessary to present the basic principles of the equipment used. Ultrasound is very high-frequency waves that pass through the tissues of the human body, partially reflected from them. The image on the screen appears due to the computer conversion of the ultrasonic signal to electrical. This method is not associated with any harmful effects and has nothing to do with x-rays.

How Often Do I Need To Use The Use?

Even in the absence of significant health problems, it is advisable to undergo a medical examination once a year. After all, any disease detected at an early stage (even cancer) is usually well treated. Several objective tests by ultrasound labs will allow you to obtain objective information about the state of your body: a general blood and urine test, an ultrasound scan, an ECG, an X-ray (or FLG) of the lungs every 1-2 years. Passing these tests will not take much time, but will help to maintain health for many years. Allocate 1-2 days a year for this!

The standard ultrasound screening protocol (performed annually) includes an examination of the following organs: thyroid gland, abdominal organs (liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen), kidneys, and pelvic organs. In the absence of ultrasonic signs of a change in the structure of these organs, there is nothing to worry about.

TMT: Treadmill Stress Test

It is an open secret that we are battling stress on a daily basis across the world for one reason or another. The level of stress varies and even requires proper tools for stress management in relation to the prognosis or medication if any. However, the first thing to consider is to notice the bodily changes. To do the same, a treadmill stress test can always come in handy. A stress treadmill test gauges the heart's capacity to absorb the exertion which may also help in determining the mental stress as well.

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During the rest mode, your heart may appear to be working fine. It is when the heart is put to “stress” your heart and cardiovascular system by exercising, your heart rate and blood flow increase in order to provide your cells with more oxygen and nutrients and remove waste.

The stress test helps the doctor ascertain how the heart functions under stress. Moreover, the test also indicates any signs and symptoms of heart problems which can turn out to be more pronounced. The most common type of stress test involves a test on a treadmill that gradually increases in speed and grade. However, if you are not able to exercise by walking on a treadmill, you will be given a drug that simulates the effects of exercise by making your heart beat faster.

On a whole, the treadmill stress test, the things which get monitored in the electrocardiogram (EKG) are heart rate, and blood pressure. The EKG measures the electrical activity which travels through your heart with each heartbeat, and a healthy heart produces a specific pattern of response with each heartbeat. The pattern gets altered when the heart is not working properly. Apart from your heart rate and blood pressure, the information obtained from the EKG makes it equally convenient for your doctor to detect any heart problems. Some of the common heart conditions which come out in the results of the treadmill stress heart test are abnormal heart rhythms, inadequate blood flow, heart valve malfunction, and the presence of coronary artery disease.

If there is a problem with your heart, the doctor may also prefer to visualize your heart during the stress test. The imaging techniques which are used for the same purpose are a combination with the stress test, the echocardiogram and nuclear imaging. The echocardiogram is effective in letting the cardiologist to see the size and shape of your heart, thickness, and movement of your heart muscle; also it can be a pointer for how well the chambers and valves in the heart are functioning; and the force with which your heart contracts. Furthermore, a nuclear imaging is also capable of showing how well your heart pumps with each heartbeat.

The treadmill stress test shall be recommended by your cardiologists only when the tests which have been done previously look inconclusive for the right diagnosis of the heart.

To know more about the test and for booking an appointment, contact your nearest lab or medical test planners.

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