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What Is PET/CT And What Are Its Benefits?

PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and CT (Computed Tomography) devices are used together to get metabolic and anatomical data about organs. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging test that assists determine how your tissues and organs function. The PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to demonstrate this activity.

This tracer can be injected in the body, swallowed or inhaled, depending on the organ or tissue to be examined by PET scanning. The tracer is collected in body areas with a high level of chemical activity, often corresponding to disease areas. In a PET scan, these areas appear as bright spots. The PET CT scan is useful in detecting or evaluating a variety of disorders, including certain cancers, heart disease, and brain disorders.

Why PET / CT Scanning?

PET CT scan in Delhi is an effective way to detect chemical activity in body areas. Some cancers can help identify various disorders, including heart disease and brain disorders. Images obtained from PET scanning provide different information than those obtained by other scanning methods like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A PET scan or combined CT-PET scan will allow your doctor to better diagnose your condition.

Cancer

Since cancer cells have a higher metabolic rate than normal cells, they appear as bright spots in PET scans. PET scans may be useful for:

  • Detection of cancer
  • Detecting whether your cancer has spread
  • To check whether cancer treatment works.
  • Determination of cancer recurrence.

PET scans should be interpreted with caution because non-cancerous disorders appear to be cancerous and many types of cancer do not appear in PET scans.

Heart disease

PET scans can show areas in the heart where blood flow is reduced: This information can help you and your doctor in deciding whether you will benefit from a procedure to open a clot-blocked heart artery (angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Brain disorders

PET CT scan in Delhi can be used to assess specific brain disorders, such as:

  • Tumours
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Seizures

What are the advantages and risks associated with PET/CT?

Benefits

Nuclear medicine examinations provide specific information that cannot often be obtained by other imaging methods, including information about both the body's function and anatomical structure.

Nuclear medicine examinations provide the most useful information for diagnosing and, if available, determining the appropriate treatment for many diseases.

Nuclear medicine is less costly than surgical exploration and can provide more accurate information.

Nuclear medicine often offers the potential to detect disease at the earliest stage before symptoms appear or abnormalities are detected by other diagnostic tests.

PET scans can detect the possibility of benign or malignant lesions, eliminating the need for surgical biopsy or identifying the best biopsy site.

PET scans may also provide additional information used in radiation therapy planning.

Child Vaccination And The Optional Vaccinations For Treatment

Vaccination is life treatment process which deliberates the administration (through injections or oral drops) of small dosage of inactivated or weakened virus or bacteria. This is basically done to better prepare the body's immune system to fight future infection(s) and make the person immune or resistant to a particular infection. The vaccination acquaints the body with an organism without it actually experiencing a disease caused by that organism. Vaccination may have to be administered on a regular basis with a specific time gap in between. These forms of vaccines are known as ‘booster’ vaccination to help the immune system overcome a real onset of an infection. Eg: Polio.

It should also be noted that there are also optional vaccinations which are often taken into consideration. Optional vaccines, as the name suggests lets you choose to have it or not without any risk or disadvantage. It goes without saying that immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is definitely beneficial for the individual. The merits of ‘optional’ vaccines for individual use must be considered on the basis of the degree of prevalence of the infection and disease; age prevalence of mortality, morbidity and the condition which is the cause of the previous disease. Additionally, it is also seen whether the risk of severe disease in susceptible adults after weaning of vaccine-induced immunity; and the effects of childhood vaccination in modifying future epidemiology. Socioeconomic factors are of important consideration. Some of the optional vaccinations given priority in our country are:

Haemophilus type b conjugate (Hib)- Hib is a bacteria responsible for severe pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases almost exclusively in children aged less than 5 years. The stat shows that in the year 2000, Hib was estimated to have caused two to three million cases of serious disease, notably pneumonia and meningitis, and 386,000 deaths in young children.

Rotavirus- This particular virus is essentially the prime cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. As a matter of fact, it claims 1 in 6 deaths in children under age of 5 in India. This vaccine was introduced in the UIP in a few states in 2016.

Influenza virus- To counter the influenza virus, the flu vaccine is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease. This virus is highly contagious and causes grave morbidity and mortality especially in the immune-compromised states.

Typhoid- Typhoid is an infection oriented fever which results due to the systemic infection mainly by S. typhi found only in man. The estimates as recent as 2014 suggest that approximately 21 million cases and 222,000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide.

What You Need To Know About Measles In The US And Vaccination?

The measles vaccine first came to be in the US in 1963. In present times, the 2-dose childhood regimen is followed and this has been in since 1989. By 2000, it was declared that measles have been successfully "eliminated" from the US. This led to many medical students and young practitioners quickly becoming unfamiliar with the disease, many never having seen a case of the virus. However, measles are back, and spreading throughout communities in the US. The current outbreak has affected over 460 people in 19 states, with the largest outbreaks in New York and New Jersey.

How did measles make a comeback?

The measles infection is brought in by travelers from abroad, and cases then spread within communities primarily where parents are neglecting or refusing to vaccinate their children. Measles is known to be extremely contagious and hence it only adds to the perils of quick outbreak.

Who is at high risk for getting measles?

•             People who have never had measles and have never been vaccinated

•             Babies younger than 1 year, since they are too young to be vaccinated

•             People who were born after 1957 and were vaccinated before 1968

How long do symptoms last?

In most people, measles is a self-limited, benign albeit unpleasant disorder characterized by a flu-like syndrome (runny nose, cough, and red, light-sensitive eyes), fever, and the classic rash that begins on the head and spreads down the trunk, arms, and legs. Typically, it lasts no longer than 10 days.

What are the possible complications of measles?

For people possessing a healthy immune system, the recovery time against measles is within 7 to 10 days. However, some people can develop severe complications such as hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), pneumonia, and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). The mortality rate from measles is 3 out of every 1,000 people who get the disease.

Who is already immune?

You don’t need to get vaccinated if you meet any of these criteria:

•             If the blood test confirms that the person is immune to measles, or

•             You’ve received 2 full doses of the measles vaccine (usually as a component in the MMR vaccine), or

•             You were born before 1957

How effective is the measles vaccine?

The vaccine is highly effective. In the US, it has been reported that people developing immunity to vaccine is between 97 and 99 percent.

How long will it take to become immune after getting the vaccine?

The vaccination for measles normally takes a few days to create what is known as the "protective effect" in the body.

Does the vaccine have side effects?

Side effects are uncommon. But the certain side effects that may bother people taking measles vaccine are mild discomfort at the point where the injection is shot, a transient rash, low-grade fever, joint aches or swollen lymph nodes. Rarely, a child may develop a febrile seizure (a convulsion caused by fever that is typically harmless). Very uncommonly (in about 1 person out of 25,000 to 40,000), there may be a temporary drop in the platelet count. These side effects pale in comparison to the risk of severe complications from the disease.

Explained: Can Typhoid Get Relapsed?

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi a bacterium found in the infected human intestine. Since it has been dubbed as a strict human pathogen, they are not found in any other animal hosts. The typhoid bacteria integrate with the small intestine of the infected human hosts. Asymptomatic long-term colonization is seen commonly seen as an occurrence in infected hosts. As a result, the person suffering from typhoid fever becomes frequent carriers. Therefore, unhygienic food or even the conditions not deemed clean enough are potentially dangerous for the normal being of a person. Food, vegetables or water contaminated human feces by S. Typhi are the common sources of infection. S. Typhi infections mainly occur when the food or water gets contaminated by infected food handlers or due to poor personal hygiene getting ingested. The diagnostic labs in Delhi opines that the infectious dose for S. Typhi infections is low and these results in a low person-to-person spread. Moreover, the answer to the question of whether a relapse of typhoid can offer, the response is simple. Relapses can be a common thing to struggle with provided the antibiotics are not taken for a full 15 days. You suffering from relapse three times appear to be unusual. Therefore, it is strongly advised I would advise repeating a full laboratory test including Widal test, blood culture, etc. to confirm the diagnosis. Add to that it is not the case of typhoid alone. There could be other infectious conditions that should be ruled out carefully with adequate and essential laboratory tests.

typhoid-fever

What is the cause of typhoid recurrence?

Ineffective Treatment- It is well and truly known that antibiotics are key to treating typhoid. Therefore, the dosage of the same should be completed right on time or else the typhoid is sure to recur. What's more? If the patients fail to complete the full course of antibiotic treatment, they are likely to develop antibiotic resistance which requires stronger antibiotics for treatment. Hence, it goes without saying that the take all the prescribed doses of antibiotics meant for typhoid even if they begin to feel better within a few days of taking these drugs.

Vaccine Ineffectiveness- Typhoid is seen as a contagious disease and some countries also issue an advisory for people who travel regularly to countries where typhoid is common. Typhoid vaccines lack the cent-percent effectiveness, and patients who fail to observe other preventative measures may become re-infected with typhoid fever. Typhoid vaccines also have the tendency to lose its efficacy after several years, and people at risk require boosters every two years for inactivated vaccines, and every five years for live oral typhoid vaccines.

As such it is always advised that you seek proper treatment from your medical specialists especially for the cases which have the risks of typhoid recurrence. In tandem, there is also a need to check the underlying causes as some typhoid cases are also aggravated due to diseases like malaria. Therefore, a comprehensive test is always encouraged.

Thyroid Cancer And Its Diagnosis

In 2019, as per the American Cancer Society, about 52,070 new cases of thyroid cancer (14,260 in men and 37,810 in women) will be diagnosed in the United States. In addition, about 2170 people will die due to this tumor (1,020 men and 1,150 women). The mortality rate of thyroid cancer has been fairly stable for many years, and it remains very low compared to other cancers.

The increase in the amount of patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer is attributed to an increase in the use of the highest quality diagnostic technology, as well as to the routine use of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration puncture (FNA). There ultrasound test cost in Delhi vary differently.

Many of the thyroid cancers are diagnosed incidentally when a patient undergoes an imaging test (computed tomography, an MRI, a positron emission tomography, or a neck ultrasound) for a reason unrelated to the thyroid. This allows today to identify cases that previously went unnoticed because they are small tumors.

Therefore, early detection of this condition implies the possibility of having more options for its treatment. One of the first tests performed by the specialist to explore the thyroid gland is manual exploration, in order to notice any abnormal mass. This type of exam usually shows a high percentage of packages, although everything depends on the conditions of each person or their complexion.

For example, in patients with obesity problems, it is more difficult to access the gland through palpation. Other times, the nodules are small or more hidden. In these cases, other studies are carried out to identify the nodules.

The most important imaging test used in the neck is high definition ultrasound, both for its accessibility and equipment economy and for its safety, since there is no exposure to any type of radiation. It is a quick and simple system, in addition to one of the most effective to confirm or rule out if a person has thyroid tumours, thanks to its greater accuracy.

Once the nodules have been identified - either because the doctor has noticed a mass on manual palpation or through an ultrasound - the next step is to find out the nature of that lesion. For this, the PAAF is used. This technique is simple, painless, safe, and highly reliable, which usually guides the expert on whether it is a nodule is benign or malignant. The procedure involves pricking the cyst and extracting a sample of cells to analyse them. Before having an ultrasound, it is good to know about the ultrasound test price first.

95% of thyroid tumours are benign, and, however, the diagnosis is sometimes neither easy nor obvious. In fact, there are cases where the malignant features of the cells are not defined. However, specialists generally have a series of guidelines to identify whether or not it is an injury that may affect the patient's health.

In short, it is important to go to the doctor at the slightest indication or suspicion, so that he can do the necessary tests, monitor the nodules or, failing that, start the treatment or removal of the thyroid gland.

Renal Failure And Its Treatment

When the kidney function test is made, it is imperative to protect the kidneys already affected. The goal is to avoid or delay the progression of the disease to chronic renal failure or end-stage renal failure. Simple therapeutic measures prevent the degradation of these organs. Discover them!

Controlling hypertension and proteinuria

Diseases that affect the blood vessels also damage the kidneys. As such, hypertension is particularly important to watch, as is proteinuria. These two factors being modifiable, their modification is at the heart of the care.

Treat the impact of kidney failure

But kidney failure will also cause metabolic disorders. The most common is anaemia (a decrease in the number of red blood cells), a source of fatigue that can really handicap the quality of life of patients. Alteration of the kidneys has other consequences- they are now unable to produce the hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), essential for the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. Since about fifteen years, this problem can be treated thanks to a synthetic version this hormone. With this product, it is possible to maintain in the patient a normal socio-professional activity.

In addition, kidney failure will cause metabolic disorders by increasing the level of phosphorus in the blood and decreasing that of calcium. Faced with this problem, the body reacts by soliciting the parathyroid glands (link to the glossary) that will mobilize calcium from the bones, weakening them. To counter this effect, calcium, vitamin D or calcimimetics may be prescribed. Finally, if the reduction in dietary phosphorus intake is not enough, phosphorus may be indicated, they prevent the digestive absorption of phosphorus contained in food.

In all cases, patients with kidney disease should be vigilant for drugs, some of which may be toxic to weakened kidneys. They must therefore discuss their situation with all the doctors they are called upon to consult, as well as with their pharmacist.

Such hygiene and dietary measures and drug treatment can push back several years, or sometimes avoid the end stage of the disease. But whatever its risk factors, the patient suffering from renal insufficiency must be a full participant in its management by respecting these rules of common sense (cessation of the tobacco, fight against the sedentary lifestyle, depleted regime of materials fat and sugar etc.) and scrupulously following his treatment despite the absence of annoying symptoms.

Today it is possible to slow down or even stop kidney failure. When you start early, identify kidney disease and undergo a kidney function test. Very often we can block the evolution of the disease. as well as every year we go when we are well, we lose between 0.5 and 1% of renal function, so when we have a slight renal insufficiency, it progresses a little bit, but what we want is is to avoid progression to the final stage that requires dialysis, and we get there quite often.

MRI Of The Brain (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

MRI is a modern study of brain structures by recording an RF signal when a patient is placed in a device with a high magnetic field, which allows doctors to conduct a high-quality diagnosis of brain diseases/ injuries. Unlike other methods of radiation diagnostics, such as computed tomography, radiography, during MRI we get more diagnostic information, the accuracy of which is now the highest among all methods of radiation diagnostics of brain structures. In addition, with an MRI of the brain, the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation; therefore, this procedure is safer for health than other diagnostic methods.

BASIC INDICATIONS FOR MRI OF THE BRAIN

Diseases of the vascular system of the brain. In most cases, patients are referred for MRI test in east Delhi if the person has suffered a stroke or if there has been a hemorrhage in the brain. In this case, you can accurately see the affected area and understand how severe the hemorrhage was in order to use certain drugs to improve the patient's condition.

Endured various head injuries, especially those accompanied by neurological disorders, such as malfunctioning of the senses.

Oncological processes of the brain (primary tumors, secondary changes - metastases). In this case, MRI allows you to monitor the situation and see how much the tumor has increased or decreased after treatment.

Infectious diseases that occur with damage to the nervous system, such as meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, which, if improperly treated or absent, can lead to death.

Congenital anomalies of the substance of the brain for a long time may not produce significant symptoms, but under certain conditions (increased blood pressure, trauma, etc.), cause complications ending in temporary disability or disability.

Epilepsy, a condition accompanied by a malfunction of the cerebral cortex, in this situation it is necessary to see which part of the brain is damaged and what is its general condition.

Where to do an MRI of the brain

MRI- the gold standard for brain research, is the most accurate, safe and informative method of radiation diagnostics, both for assessing the anatomical structure of the brain and for visualizing pathological changes in its structure, and some specific studies can evaluate brain metabolism, but at the same time it requires the availability of modern expensive equipment in a medical institution, as well as highly qualified specialists who can make the correct diagnosis h based on studies.

Brain MRI is a painless procedure, as a result of which, using the influence of a magnetic field, and layered, detailed images of brain structures are obtained. MRI is a safe method of examination, i.e., when scanning, X-ray (ionizing) radiation is not used, and the patient is not "irradiated" during the procedure, as a result of several examinations it is possible to go through at a time. It is good to know the MRI test cost in Noida before undergoing the treatment.

If necessary, MRI of the brain is performed with contrast. A contrast agent is used to study processes in the organ or tissue under study in more detail. When injected into a vein, the blood flow brings a contrast medium to the zone of interest, after which a targeted study of this zone is performed, this allows you to identify and confirm the presence, as well as evaluate the dynamics of oncological and inflammatory processes in the brain.

Indications For PET/CT Of The Whole Body

PET/CT is an effective and modern method for the diagnosis of cancer. The method combines the capabilities of positron emission (PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans and allows with a high degree of confidence to establish the presence of a malignant formation.

To identify abnormal cells, various radiopharmaceuticals are used. A full-body PET/CT scan is performed with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), a preparation that is prepared on the eve of the study, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. Diagnosis is based on assessing the metabolic rate of cells at the molecular level; therefore, it allows to detect a malignant tumor with a size of 4-5 mm. Smaller tumors do not reveal the resolving power of modern PET/CT scanners.

The procedure has several advantages:

  • The possibility of identifying cancer tumors at an asymptomatic stage;
  • Safety of the technique, lack of pain;
  • Ambulatory without surgical intervention;
  • Obtaining complete information about the prevalence of the malignant process in the body.

Indications for PET/CT of the whole body

PET CT scanallows you to evaluate the extent of the tumor lesion of the patient and correctly determine the stage of the disease. Information on how far the malignant cells have spread is extremely important for choosing treatment tactics. An examination of patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy or having undergone it is necessary to monitor the results of the prescribed treatment- a PET / CT scan will show how the tumor is changing, and will allow you to see new foci and relapses.

Full-body PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose isperformed for:

  • Detection of metastases and primary foci of the tumor;
  • Determining the extent of the tumor process;
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment;
  • Differentiation of benign and malignant tumors;
  • Planning treatment tactics.

At PET Technology centers, 18F-FDH is diagnosed with the following diseases: malignant skeleton tumors, melanoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas, thyroid cancer, mammary glands, cervix, thymus, testicles, lungs, pancreas glands, ovaries, stomach, and intestines.

Full body PET / CT preparation

Whole body PET scan Delhi is based on the analysis of cell metabolism, and a number of external factors affect it. In order for the doctor to get accurate data, you need to properly prepare for the examination.

Two days before the procedure, exclude alcohol and carbohydrate foods (everything that contains glucose, fructose, lactose, and complex carbohydrates: sweets, cereals, flour, milk, sweet drinks);

Stop eating 6 hours or more before visiting the center. Scanning is carried out on an empty stomach, if possible in the morning;

Before the study, you need to drink more fluid;

Two days before pet / ct, you can’t super cool, physical activity is prohibited: cold and intense movement affect metabolism in the body’s tissues;

Bring warm, comfortable clothes without metal elements (zippers, buttons, etc.), replaceable shoes. Things should not tighten or squeeze;

Bring for examination the data of past studies and examinations, expert opinions about your disease.

Important: patients with diabetes should first consult with an endocrinologist. The presence of glucose in the radiopharmaceutical used can cause complications of the disease or reduce the reliability of the results. Also, the doctor should be warned about pregnancy, breastfeeding, the presence of allergies to medications, claustrophobia, and the inability to lie still for 40 minutes.

How To Determine The Cause Of "Knee Pain"?

One of the most common complaints after outdoor activities is a pain in the knee joint. Its cause can be both sharp traumatic effects and prolonged static loads. If you are concerned about “knee pain”, then you need to consult a traumatologist, because in some cases joint pain can be a harbinger of serious pathology.

Diagnosis of the causes of "knee pain"

In the vast majority of cases, the damage is complex, and without visualization of damaged structures to identify problem areas can be problematic. For this, an MRI study is performed by MRI scan centre in New Delhi to study the anatomical structures of the joint and identify the cause of the pain.

In the knee joint are most often damaged:

  • Menisci (red markers)
  • Bags of the joint in the form of inflammation.
  • Ligaments:
  • Cruciform- front and back
  • Collateral
  • Own patellar ligament

When does it make sense to examine an MRI of the knee?

With each step, the knee joints experience a three-dimensional load of the weight of the whole organism. For a short period, the knee can withstand much more. Like no other joint, the knee provides mobility. Cartilage and meniscus absorb a heavy load, and the ligaments further stabilize the knee.

Often, problems with the knee joint occur in children and adolescents in connection with growth, since the individual elements of the knee joint must constantly adapt to each other.

The knee joint is already inherently subjected to a constant load, and the additional load (for example, during sports) causes damage to it. Excessive rotation often causes ligament rupture, especially the cruciate ligament. An overload can also lead to the rupture of the meniscus. These two diagnoses cannot be made by X-ray. This requires an MRI scan.

In addition, the knee joint refers to those joints that are the most susceptible to wear (arthrosis). An MRI scanner shows how worn the cartilage is. Determining the degree of wear is very important in developing a treatment plan.

What is this survey?

Using a strong magnetic field, the internal structures of the knee are visualized in the framework of magnetic resonance imaging. This allows MRI scan centres in east Delhi to make an accurate diagnosis.

If the artificial knee cannot be avoided, then MRI images are an important part in terms of preparing the patient for surgery. It is necessary to clearly determine the type and position of the artificial joint.

As part of the examination (examination lasts up to 20 minutes), you lie on a movable couch, which is sent to the tunnel. It is open front and back. Using a strong magnetic field, layered images of the knee are created to consider the smallest changes. Such changes cannot be detected using x-rays, and the examination is painless and takes place for the patient in a gentle manner.

If necessary, a contrast agent is introduced in order to better consider the individual parts of the knee joint and possible damage. The used contrast medium does not contain iodine and only in rare cases, causes side effects.

How Does Contrast Affect The Kidney?

In current medicine, the use of imaging tests has been widely extended as a fundamental support for both the diagnosis and therapeutics of different pathologies. DTPA renal scan provide a great deal of information; they are mostly non-invasive or minimally invasive and have good cost-effectiveness.

The technology used for such tests varies from radiation to ultrasound and electromagnetic fields, as well as combinations or modifications of these, and depending on the body structure that you want to study some techniques will be more suitable than others. There are also ways to increase the sensitivity and/or specificity of the test and provide more information to the healthcare professional who has requested them, such as the use of contrasts.

These are substances that can be ingested, administered through enemas, probes, or intravenous, and that enhances structures or organs in the images. However, contrasts cannot be used in all cases, and particularly in patients with impaired renal function, there are some peculiarities that must be considered. Two situations are the most relevant.

When a CT scan with iodinated contrast is performed, this is a product that is discarded through the urine, but when the patient's renal function is impaired below a certain limit (Glomerular filtration <60 ml/min) it can worsen the renal functions even more. To reduce the risk, it is important to maintain adequate hydration before and after the test and avoid the consumption of some medications such as diuretics, antihypertensive, and analgesics (NSAIDs) 24 hours prior to the DTPA renal scan.

Contrast urography

The most informative, simple, and inexpensive research method. It can be performed on an outpatient basis - immediately after the procedure, the patient goes home. The main advantage is the introduction of an iodine-based contrast agent, which, as it is filtered by the glomerular system and excreted through the urinary tract, highlights various areas in the picture.

Possible side effects of kidney x-ray with contrast

The most common are allergic reactions; therefore, X-ray rooms are equipped with a first-aid kit to provide emergency assistance with the development of a hypersensitivity reaction. Also, during the introduction of contrast, you may experience a short-term feeling of heat, nausea, and an unusual smack in the mouth.

In the case of a Magnetic Resonance with gadolinium contrast, there is a less frequent but more serious adverse reaction, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis; It has been seen that it occurs mainly in patients with major impairment of renal function (Filtration <30 ml/min) and there is currently no completely satisfactory treatment for it. To reduce their risk, the least possible amount of gadolinium is used, and in some patients, hemodialysis sessions are indicated to help remove this substance from the blood.

Therefore, if you are a patient with renal insufficiency, do not be surprised if some special provisions are made when you indicate any of these tests.

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